Zend_Service_Twitter

Introduction

Zend_Service_Twitter provides a client for the » Twitter API. Zend_Service_Twitter allows you to query the public timeline. If you provide a username and OAuth details for Twitter, it will allow you to get and update your status, reply to friends, direct message friends, mark tweets as favorite, and much more.

Zend_Service_Twitter wraps all web service operations, including OAuth, and all methods return an instance of Zend_Service_Twitter_Response.

Zend_Service_Twitter is broken up into subsections so you can easily identify which type of call is being requested.

  • account allows you to check that your account credentials are valid.

  • application allows you to check your API rate limit.

  • blocks blocks and unblocks users from following you.

  • directMessages retrieves the authenticated user's received direct messages, deletes direct messages, and sends new direct messages.

  • favorites lists, creates, and removes favorite tweets.

  • friendships creates and removes friendships for the authenticated user.

  • search allows you to search statuses for specific criteria.

  • statuses retrieves the public and user timelines and shows, updates, destroys, and retrieves replies for the authenticated user.

  • users retrieves friends and followers for the authenticated user and returns extended information about a passed user.

Authentication

With the exception of fetching the public timeline, Zend_Service_Twitter requires authentication as a valid user. This is achieved using the OAuth authentication protocol. OAuth is the only supported authentication mode for Twitter as of August 2010. The OAuth implementation used by Zend_Service_Twitter is Zend_Oauth.

Example #1 Creating the Twitter Class

Zend_Service_Twitter must authorize itself, on behalf of a user, before use with the Twitter API (except for public timeline). This must be accomplished using OAuth since Twitter has disabled it's basic HTTP authentication as of August 2010.

There are two options to establishing authorization. The first is to implement the workflow of Zend_Oauth via Zend_Service_Twitter which proxies to an internal Zend_Oauth_Consumer object. Please refer to the Zend_Oauth documentation for a full example of this workflow - you can call all documented Zend_Oauth_Consumer methods on Zend_Service_Twitter including constructor options. You may also use Zend_Oauth directly and only pass the resulting access token into Zend_Service_Twitter. This is the normal workflow once you have established a reusable access token for a particular Twitter user. The resulting OAuth access token should be stored to a database for future use (otherwise you will need to authorize for every new instance of Zend_Service_Twitter). Bear in mind that authorization via OAuth results in your user being redirected to Twitter to give their consent to the requested authorization (this is not repeated for stored access tokens). This will require additional work (i.e. redirecting users and hosting a callback URL) over the previous HTTP authentication mechanism where a user just needed to allow applications to store their username and password.

The following example demonstrates setting up Zend_Service_Twitter which is given an already established OAuth access token. Please refer to the Zend_Oauth documentation to understand the workflow involved. The access token is a serializable object, so you may store the serialized object to a database, and unserialize it at retrieval time before passing the objects into Zend_Service_Twitter. The Zend_Oauth documentation demonstrates the workflow and objects involved.

  1. /**
  2. * We assume $serializedToken is the serialized token retrieved from a database
  3. * or even $_SESSION (if following the simple Zend_Oauth documented example)
  4. */
  5. $token = unserialize($serializedToken);
  6.  
  7. $twitter = new Zend_Service_Twitter(array(
  8.     'accessToken' => $token
  9.     'oauth_options' => array(
  10.         'username' => 'johndoe',
  11.     ),
  12. ));
  13.  
  14. // verify user's credentials with Twitter
  15. $response = $twitter->account->verifyCredentials();

Note: In order to authenticate with Twitter, ALL applications MUST be registered with Twitter in order to receive a Consumer Key and Consumer Secret to be used when authenticating with OAuth. This can not be reused across multiple applications - you must register each new application separately. Twitter access tokens have no expiry date, so storing them to a database is advised (they can, of course, be refreshed simply be repeating the OAuth authorization process). This can only be done while interacting with the user associated with that access token.
The previous pre-OAuth version of Zend_Service_Twitter allowed passing in a username as the first parameter rather than within an array. This is no longer supported.

If you have registered an application with Twitter, you can also use the access token and access token secret they provide you in order to setup the OAuth consumer. This can be done as follows:

  1. $twitter = new Zend_Service_Twitter(array(
  2.     'access_token' => array( // or use "accessToken" as the key; both work
  3.         'token' => 'your-access-token',
  4.         'secret' => 'your-access-token-secret',
  5.     ),
  6.     'oauth_options' => array( // or use "oauthOptions" as the key; both work
  7.         'consumerKey' => 'your-consumer-key',
  8.         'consumerSecret' => 'your-consumer-secret',
  9.     ),
  10. ));

If desired, you can also specify a specific HTTP client instance to use, or provide configuration for the HTTP client. To provide the HTTP client, use the http_client or httpClient key, and provide an instance. To provide HTTP client configuration for setting up an instance, use the key http_client_options or httpClientOptions. As a full example:

  1. $twitter = new Zend_Service_Twitter(array(
  2.     'access_token' => array( // or use "accessToken" as the key; both work
  3.         'token' => 'your-access-token',
  4.         'secret' => 'your-access-token-secret',
  5.     ),
  6.     'oauth_options' => array( // or use "oauthOptions" as the key; both work
  7.         'consumerKey' => 'your-consumer-key',
  8.         'consumerSecret' => 'your-consumer-secret',
  9.     ),
  10.     'http_client_options' => array(
  11.         'adapter' => 'Zend_Http_Client_Adapter_Curl',
  12.     ),
  13. ));

Account Methods

  • verifyCredentials() tests if supplied user credentials are valid with minimal overhead.

    Example #2 Verifying credentials

    1. $twitter  = new Zend_Service_Twitter($options);
    2. $response = $twitter->account->verifyCredentials();

Application Methods

  • rateLimitStatus() returns the remaining number of API requests available to the authenticating user before the API limit is reached for the current hour.

    Example #3 Rating limit status

    1. $twitter  = new Zend_Service_Twitter($options);
    2. $response = $twitter->application->rateLimitStatus();
    3. $userTimelineLimit = $response->resources->statuses->{'/statuses/user_timeline'}->remaining;

Block Methods

  • create() blocks the user specified in the id parameter as the authenticating user and destroys a friendship to the blocked user if one exists. Returns the blocked user when successful.

    Example #4 Blocking a user

    1. $twitter  = new Zend_Service_Twitter($options);
    2. $response = $twitter->blocks->create('usertoblock');
  • destroy() un-blocks the user specified in the id parameter for the authenticating user. Returns the un-blocked user in the requested format when successful.

    Example #5 Removing a block

    1. $twitter  = new Zend_Service_Twitter($options);
    2. $response = $twitter->blocks->destroy('blockeduser');
  • ids() returns an array of user identifiers that the authenticating user is blocking.

    Example #6 Who are you blocking (identifiers only)

    1. $twitter  = new Zend_Service_Twitter($options);
    2. $response = $twitter->blocks->ids();
  • list() returns an array of user objects that the authenticating user is blocking.

    Example #7 Who are you blocking

    1. $twitter  = new Zend_Service_Twitter($options);
    2. $response = $twitter->blocks->list();

Direct Message Methods

  • messages() returns a list of the 20 most recent direct messages sent to the authenticating user.

    Example #8 Retrieving recent direct messages received

    1. $twitter  = new Zend_Service_Twitter($options);
    2. $response = $twitter->directMessages->messages();

    The messages() method accepts an array of optional parameters to modify the query.

    • since_id narrows the returned results to just those statuses after the specified identifier (up to 24 hours old).

    • max_id narrows the returned results to just those statuses earlier than the specified identifier.

    • count specifies the number of statuses to return, up to 200.

    • skip_status, when set to boolean true, "t", or 1 will skip including a user's most recent status in the results.

    • include_entities controls whether or not entities, which includes URLs, mentioned users, and hashtags, will be returned.

  • sent() returns a list of the 20 most recent direct messages sent by the authenticating user.

    Example #9 Retrieving recent direct messages sent

    1. $twitter  = new Zend_Service_Twitter($options);
    2. $response = $twitter->directMessages->sent();

    The sent() method accepts an array of optional parameters to modify the query.

    • count specifies the number of statuses to return, up to 20.

    • page specifies the page of results to return, based on the count provided.

    • since_id narrows the returned results to just those statuses after the specified identifier (up to 24 hours old).

    • max_id narrows the returned results to just those statuses earlier than the specified identifier.

    • include_entities controls whether or not entities, which includes URLs, mentioned users, and hashtags, will be returned.

  • new() sends a new direct message to the specified user from the authenticating user. Requires both the user and text parameters below.

    Example #10 Sending a direct message

    1. $twitter  = new Zend_Service_Twitter($options);
    2. $response = $twitter->directMessages->new('myfriend', 'mymessage');
  • destroy() destroys the direct message specified in the required id parameter. The authenticating user must be the recipient of the specified direct message.

    Example #11 Deleting a direct message

    1. $twitter  = new Zend_Service_Twitter($options);
    2. $response = $twitter->directMessages->destroy(123548);

Favorites Methods

  • list() returns the 20 most recent favorite statuses for the authenticating user or user specified by the user_id or screen_name parameter.

    Example #12 Retrieving favorites

    1. $twitter  = new Zend_Service_Twitter($options);
    2. $response = $twitter->favorites->list();

    The list() method accepts an array of optional parameters to modify the query.

    • user_id specifies the ID of the user for whom to return the timeline.

    • screen_name specifies the screen name of the user for whom to return the timeline.

    • since_id narrows the returned results to just those statuses after the specified identifier (up to 24 hours old).

    • max_id narrows the returned results to just those statuses earlier than the specified identifier.

    • count specifies the number of statuses to return, up to 200.

    • include_entities controls whether or not entities, which includes URLs, mentioned users, and hashtags, will be returned.

  • create() favorites the status specified in the id parameter as the authenticating user.

    Example #13 Creating a favorite

    1. $twitter  = new Zend_Service_Twitter($options);
    2. $response = $twitter->favorites->create(12351);
  • destroy() un-favorites the status specified in the id parameter as the authenticating user.

    Example #14 Deleting favorites

    1. $twitter  = new Zend_Service_Twitter($options);
    2. $response = $twitter->favorites->destroy(12351);

Friendship Methods

  • create() befriends the user specified in the id parameter with the authenticating user.

    Example #15 Creating a friend

    1. $twitter  = new Zend_Service_Twitter($options);
    2. $response = $twitter->friendships->create('mynewfriend');
  • destroy() discontinues friendship with the user specified in the id parameter and the authenticating user.

    Example #16 Deleting a friend

    1. $twitter  = new Zend_Service_Twitter($options);
    2. $response = $twitter->friendships->destroy('myoldfriend');

Search Methods

  • tweets() returns a list of tweets matching the criteria specified in $query. By default, 15 will be returned, but this value may be changed using the count option.

    Example #17 Searching for tweets

    1. $twitter  = new Zend_Service_Twitter($options);
    2. $response = $twitter->search->tweets('#zendframework');

    The tweets() method accepts an optional second argument, an array of optional parameters to modify the query.

    • since_id narrows the returned results to just those statuses after the specified identifier (up to 24 hours old).

    • max_id narrows the returned results to just those statuses earlier than the specified identifier.

    • count specifies the number of statuses to return, up to 200.

    • include_entities controls whether or not entities, which includes URLs, mentioned users, and hashtags, will be returned.

    • lang indicates which two-letter language code to restrict results to.

    • locale indicates which two-letter language code is being used in the query.

    • geocode can be used to indicate the geographical radius in which tweets should originate; the string should be in the form "latitude,longitude,radius", with "radius" being a unit followed by one of "mi" or "km".

    • result_type indicates what type of results to retrieve, and should be one of "mixed," "recent," or "popular."

    • until can be used to specify a the latest date for which to return tweets.

Status Methods

  • sample() returns the 20 most recent statuses from non-protected users with a custom user icon. The public timeline is cached by Twitter for 60 seconds.

    Example #18 Retrieving public timeline

    1. $twitter  = new Zend_Service_Twitter($options);
    2. $response = $twitter->statuses->sample();
  • homeTimeline() returns the 20 most recent statuses posted by the authenticating user and that user's friends.

    Example #19 Retrieving the home timeline

    1. $twitter  = new Zend_Service_Twitter($options);
    2. ));
    3. $response = $twitter->statuses->homeTimeline();

    The homeTimeline() method accepts an array of optional parameters to modify the query.

    • since_id narrows the returned results to just those statuses after the specified identifier (up to 24 hours old).

    • max_id narrows the returned results to just those statuses earlier than the specified identifier.

    • count specifies the number of statuses to return, up to 200.

    • trim_user, when set to boolean true, "t", or 1, will list the author identifier only in embedded user objects in the statuses returned.

    • contributor_details, when set to boolean true, will return the screen name of any contributors to a status (instead of only the contributor identifier).

    • include_entities controls whether or not entities, which includes URLs, mentioned users, and hashtags, will be returned.

    • exclude_replies controls whether or not status updates that are in reply to other statuses will be returned.

  • userTimeline() returns the 20 most recent statuses posted from the authenticating user.

    Example #20 Retrieving user timeline

    1. $twitter  = new Zend_Service_Twitter($options);
    2. $response = $twitter->statuses->userTimeline();

    The userTimeline() method accepts an array of optional parameters to modify the query.

    • user_id specifies the ID of the user for whom to return the timeline.

    • screen_name specifies the screen name of the user for whom to return the timeline.

    • since_id narrows the returned results to just those statuses after the specified identifier (up to 24 hours old).

    • max_id narrows the returned results to just those statuses earlier than the specified identifier.

    • count specifies the number of statuses to return, up to 200.

    • trim_user, when set to boolean true, "t", or 1, will list the author identifier only in embedded user objects in the statuses returned.

    • contributor_details, when set to boolean true, will return the screen name of any contributors to a status (instead of only the contributor identifier).

    • include_rts controls whether or not to include native retweets in the returned list.

    • exclude_replies controls whether or not status updates that are in reply to other statuses will be returned.

  • show() returns a single status, specified by the id parameter below. The status' author will be returned inline.

    Example #21 Showing user status

    1. $twitter  = new Zend_Service_Twitter($options);
    2. $response = $twitter->statuses->show(1234);
  • update() updates the authenticating user's status. This method requires that you pass in the status update that you want to post to Twitter.

    Example #22 Updating user status

    1. $twitter  = new Zend_Service_Twitter($options);
    2. $response = $twitter->statuses->update('My Great Tweet');

    The update() method accepts a second additional parameter.

    • inReplyToStatusId specifies the ID of an existing status that the status to be posted is in reply to.

  • mentionsTimeline() returns the 20 most recent @replies (status updates prefixed with @username) for the authenticating user.

    Example #23 Showing user replies

    1. $twitter  = new Zend_Service_Twitter($options);
    2. $response = $twitter->statuses->mentionsTimeline();

    The mentionsTimeline() method accepts an array of optional parameters to modify the query.

    • since_id narrows the returned results to just those statuses after the specified identifier (up to 24 hours old).

    • max_id narrows the returned results to just those statuses earlier than the specified identifier.

    • count specifies the number of statuses to return, up to 200.

    • trim_user, when set to boolean true, "t", or 1, will list the author identifier only in embedded user objects in the statuses returned.

    • contributor_details, when set to boolean true, will return the screen name of any contributors to a status (instead of only the contributor identifier).

    • include_entities controls whether or not entities, which includes URLs, mentioned users, and hashtags, will be returned.

  • destroy() destroys the status specified by the required id parameter.

    Example #24 Deleting user status

    1. $twitter  = new Zend_Service_Twitter($options);
    2. $response = $twitter->statuses->destroy(12345);

User Methods

  • show() returns extended information of a given user, specified by ID or screen name as per the required id parameter below.

    Example #25 Showing user informations

    1. $twitter  = new Zend_Service_Twitter($options);
    2. $response = $twitter->users->show('myfriend');
  • search() will search for users matching the query provided.

    Example #26 Searching for users

    1. $twitter  = new Zend_Service_Twitter($options);
    2. $response = $twitter->users->search('Zend');

    The search() method accepts an array of optional parameters to modify the query.

    • count specifies the number of statuses to return, up to 20.

    • page specifies the page of results to return, based on the count provided.

    • include_entities controls whether or not entities, which includes URLs, mentioned users, and hashtags, will be returned.

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