Zend\Mvc

Default Services

The default and recommended way to write Zend Framework applications uses a set of services defined in the Zend\Mvc\Service namespace. This chapter details what each of those services are, the classes they represent, and the configuration options available.

Theory of Operation

To allow easy configuration of all the different parts of the MVC system, a somewhat complex set of services and their factories has been created. We’ll try to give a simplified explanation of the process.

When a Zend\Mvc\Application is created, a Zend\ServiceManager\ServiceManager object is created and configured via Zend\Mvc\Service\ServiceManagerConfig. The ServiceManagerConfig gets the configuration from application.config.php (or some other application configuration you passed to the Application when creating it). From all the service and factories provided in the Zend\Mvc\Service namespace, ServiceManagerConfig is responsible of configuring only three: SharedEventManager, EventManager, and ModuleManager.

After this, the Application calls for the ModuleManager. At this point, the ModuleManager further configures the ServiceManager with services and factories provided in Zend\Mvc\Service\ServiceLocator. This approach allows to keep the main application configuration as simple as possible, and to give the developer the power to configure different parts of the MVC system from within the modules, overriding any default configuration in these MVC services.

ServiceManager

This is the one service class referenced directly in the application bootstrapping. It provides the following:

  • Invokable services

    • DispatchListener, mapping to Zend\Mvc\DispatchListener.
    • RouteListener, mapping to Zend\Mvc\RouteListener.
  • Factories

    • Application, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\ApplicationFactory.

    • Config, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\ConfigFactory. Internally, this pulls the ModuleManager service, and calls its loadModules() method, and retrieves the merged configuration from the module event. As such, this service contains the entire, merged application configuration.

    • ControllerLoader, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\ControllerLoaderFactory. This scoped container will be populated by the ServiceListener.

      Additionally, the scoped container is configured to use the Di service as an abstract service factory – effectively allowing you to fall back to DI in order to retrieve your controllers. If you want to use Zend\Di to retrieve your controllers, you must white-list them in your DI configuration under the allowed_controllers key (otherwise, they will just be ignored).

      If the controller implements the Zend\ServiceManager\ServiceLocatorAwareInterface interface, an instance of the ServiceManager will be injected into it.

      If the controller implements the Zend\EventManager\EventManagerAwareInterface interface, an instance of the EventManager will be injected into it.

      Finally, an initializer will inject it with the ControllerPluginManager service, as long as the setPluginManager is implemented.

    • ControllerPluginManager, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\ControllerPluginManagerFactory. This instantiates the Zend\Mvc\Controller\PluginManager instance, passing it the service manager instance. It also uses the Di service as an abstract service factory – effectively allowing you to fall back to DI in order to retrieve your controller plugins.

      It registers a set of default controller plugins, and contains an initializer for injecting plugins with the current controller.

    • DependencyInjector, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\DiFactory. This pulls the Config service, and looks for a “di” key; if found, that value is used to configure a new Zend\Di\Di instance. Additionally, the Di instance is used to seed a Zend\ServiceManager\Di\DiAbstractServiceFactory instance which is then attached to the service manager as an abstract factory – effectively enabling DI as a fallback for providing services.

    • EventManager, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\EventManagerFactory. This factory composes a static reference to a SharedEventManager, which is injected in a new EventManager instance. This service is not shared by default, allowing the ability to have an EventManager per service, with a shared SharedEventManager injected in each.

    • ModuleManager, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\ModuleManagerFactory.

      This is perhaps the most complex factory in the MVC stack. It expects that an ApplicationConfig service has been injected, with keys for module_listener_options and modules; see the quick start for samples.

      It instantiates an instance of Zend\ModuleManager\Listener\DefaultListenerAggregate, using the “module_listener_options” retrieved. Checks if a service with the name ServiceListener exists, otherwise falls back to the ServiceListenerFactory, and instantiates it. A bunch of service listerns will be added to the ServiceListener, like listeners for the getServiceConfig, getControllerConfig, getControllerPluginConfig, getViewHelperConfig module methods.

      Next, it retrieves the EventManager service, and attaches the above listeners.

      It instantiates a Zend\ModuleManager\ModuleEvent instance, setting the “ServiceManager” parameter to the service manager object.

      Finally, it instantiates a Zend\ModuleManager\ModuleManager instance, and injects the EventManager and ModuleEvent.

    • ServiceListenerFactory, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\ServiceListenerFactory. The factory is used to instantiate the ServiceListener, while allowing easy extending. It checks if a service with the name ServiceListenerInterface exists, which must implement Zend\ModuleManager\Listener\ServiceListenerInterface, before instantiating the default ServiceListener.

      In addition to this, it retrieves the ApplicationConfig and looks for the service_listener_options key. This allows you to register own listerns for module methods and configuration keys to create an own service manager; see the application configuration options for samples.

    • Request, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\RequestFactory. The factory is used to create and return a request instance, according to the current environment. If the current environment is cli, it will create a Zend\Console\Request, or a Zend\Http\PhpEnvironment\Request if the current environment is HTTP.

    • Response, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\ResponseFactory. The factory is used to create and return a response instance, according to the current environment. If the current environment is cli, it will create a Zend\Console\Response, or a Zend\Http\PhpEnvironment\Response if the current environment is HTTP.

    • Router, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\RouterFactory. This grabs the Config service, and pulls from the router key, passing it to Zend\Mvc\Router\Http\TreeRouteStack::factory in order to get a configured router instance.

    • ViewManager, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\ViewManagerFactory. The factory is used to create and return a view manager, according to the current environment. If the current environment is cli, it will create a Zend\Mvc\View\Console\ViewManager, or a Zend\Mvc\View\Http\ViewManager if the current environment is HTTP.

    • ViewResolver, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\ViewResolverFactory, which creates and returns the aggregate view resolver. It also attaches the ViewTemplateMapResolver and ViewTemplatePathStack services to it.

    • ViewTemplateMapResolver, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\ViewTemplateMapResolverFactory which creates, configures and returns the Zend\View\Resolver\TemplateMapResolver.

    • ViewTemplatePathStack, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\ViewTemplatePathStackFactory which creates, configures and returns the Zend\View\Resolver\TemplatePathStack.

    • ViewHelperManager, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\ViewHelperManagerFactory, which creates, configures and returns the view helper manager.

    • ViewFeedRenderer, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\ViewFeedRendererFactory, which simply returns a Zend\View\Renderer\FeedRenderer instance.

    • ViewFeedStrategy, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\ViewFeedStrategyFactory. This instantiates a Zend\View\Strategy\FeedStrategy instance with the ViewFeedRenderer service.

    • ViewJsonRenderer, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\ViewJsonRendererFactory, which simply returns a Zend\View\Renderer\JsonRenderer instance.

    • ViewJsonStrategy, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\ViewJsonStrategyFactory. This instantiates a Zend\View\Strategy\JsonStrategy instance with the ViewJsonRenderer service.

  • Aliases

    • Config, mapping to the Config service.
    • Di, mapping to the DependencyInjector service.
    • Zend\EventManager\EventManagerInterface, mapping to the EventManager service. This is mainly to ensure that when falling through to DI, classes are still injected via the ServiceManager.
    • Zend\Mvc\Controller\PluginBroker, mapping to the ControllerPluginBroker service. This is mainly to ensure that when falling through to DI, classes are still injected via the ServiceManager.
    • Zend\Mvc\Controller\PluginLoader, mapping to the ControllerPluginLoader service. This is mainly to ensure that when falling through to DI, classes are still injected via the ServiceManager.

Additionally, two initializers are registered. Initializers are run on created instances, and may be used to further configure them. The two initializers the ServiceManagerConfig class creates and registers do the following:

  • For objects that implement Zend\EventManager\EventManagerAwareInterface, the EventManager service will be retrieved and injected. This service is not shared, though each instance it creates is injected with a shared instance of SharedEventManager.
  • For objects that implement Zend\ServiceManager\ServiceLocatorAwareInterface, the ServiceManager will inject itself into the object.

Finally, the ServiceManager registers itself as the ServiceManager service, and aliases itself to the class names Zend\ServiceManager\ServiceManagerInterface and Zend\ServiceManager\ServiceManager.

ViewManager

The View layer within Zend\Mvc consists of a large number of collaborators and event listeners. As such, Zend\Mvc\View\ViewManager was created to handle creation of the various objects, as well as wiring them together and establishing event listeners.

The ViewManager itself is an event listener on the bootstrap event. It retrieves the ServiceManager from the Application object, as well as its composed EventManager.

Configuration for all members of the ViewManager fall under the view_manager configuration key, and expect values as noted below. The following services are created and managed by the ViewManager:

  • ViewHelperManager, representing and aliased to Zend\View\HelperPluginManager. It is seeded with the ServiceManager. Created via the Zend\Mvc\Service\ViewHelperManagerFactory.
    • The Router service is retrieved, and injected into the Url helper.
    • If the base_path key is present, it is used to inject the BasePath view helper; otherwise, the Request service is retrieved, and the value of its getBasePath() method is used.
    • If the doctype key is present, it will be used to set the value of the Doctype view helper.
  • ViewTemplateMapResolver, representing and aliased to Zend\View\Resolver\TemplateMapResolver. If a template_map key is present, it will be used to seed the template map.
  • ViewTemplatePathStack, representing and aliased to Zend\View\Resolver\TemplatePathStack. If a template_path_stack key is prsent, it will be used to seed the stack.
  • ViewResolver, representing and aliased to Zend\View\Resolver\AggregateResolver and Zend\View\Resolver\ResolverInterface. It is seeded with the ViewTemplateMapResolver and ViewTemplatePathStack services as resolvers.
  • ViewRenderer, representing and aliased to Zend\View\Renderer\PhpRenderer and Zend\View\Renderer\RendererInterface. It is seeded with the ViewResolver and ViewHelperBroker services. Additionally, the ViewModel helper gets seeded with the ViewModel as its root (layout) model.
  • ViewPhpRendererStrategy, representing and aliased to Zend\View\Strategy\PhpRendererStrategy. It gets seeded with the ViewRenderer service.
  • View, representing and aliased to Zend\View\View. It gets seeded with the EventManager service, and attaches the ViewPhpRendererStrategy as an aggregate listener.
  • DefaultRenderingStrategy, representing and aliased to Zend\Mvc\View\DefaultRenderingStrategy. If the layout key is present, it is used to seed the strategy’s layout template. It is seeded with the View service.
  • ExceptionStrategy, representing and aliased to Zend\Mvc\View\ExceptionStrategy. If the display_exceptions or exception_template keys are present, they are used to configure the strategy.
  • RouteNotFoundStrategy, representing and aliased to Zend\Mvc\View\RouteNotFoundStrategy and 404Stategy. If the display_not_found_reason or not_found_template keys are present, they are used to configure the strategy.
  • ViewModel. In this case, no service is registered; the ViewModel is simply retrieved from the MvcEvent and injected with the layout template name.

The ViewManager also creates several other listeners, but does not expose them as services; these include Zend\Mvc\View\CreateViewModelListener, Zend\Mvc\View\InjectTemplateListener, and Zend\Mvc\View\InjectViewModelListener. These, along with RouteNotFoundStrategy, ExceptionStrategy, and DefaultRenderingStrategy are attached as listeners either to the application EventManager instance or the SharedEventManager instance.

Finally, if you have a strategies key in your configuration, the ViewManager will loop over these and attach them in order to the View service as listeners, at a priority of 100 (allowing them to execute before the DefaultRenderingStrategy).

Application Configuration Options

The following options may be used to provide initial configuration for the ServiceManager, ModuleManager, and Application instances, allowing them to then find and aggregate the configuration used for the Config service, which is intended for configuring all other objects in the system. These configuration directives go to the config/application.config.php file.

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<?php
return array(
    // This should be an array of module namespaces used in the application.
    'modules' => array(
    ),

    // These are various options for the listeners attached to the ModuleManager
    'module_listener_options' => array(
        // This should be an array of paths in which modules reside.
        // If a string key is provided, the listener will consider that a module
        // namespace, the value of that key the specific path to that module's
        // Module class.
        'module_paths' => array(
        ),

        // An array of paths from which to glob configuration files after
        // modules are loaded. These effectively overide configuration
        // provided by modules themselves. Paths may use GLOB_BRACE notation.
        'config_glob_paths' => array(
        ),

        // Whether or not to enable a configuration cache.
        // If enabled, the merged configuration will be cached and used in
        // subsequent requests.
        'config_cache_enabled' => $booleanValue,

        // The key used to create the configuration cache file name.
        'config_cache_key' => $stringKey,

        // Whether or not to enable a module class map cache.
        // If enabled, creates a module class map cache which will be used
        // by in future requests, to reduce the autoloading process.
        'module_map_cache_enabled' => $booleanValue,

        // The key used to create the class map cache file name.
        'module_map_cache_key' => $stringKey,

        // The path in which to cache merged configuration.
        'cache_dir' => $stringPath,

        // Whether or not to enable modules dependency checking.
        // Enabled by default, prevents usage of modules that depend on other modules
        // that weren't loaded.
        'check_dependencies' => $booleanValue,
    ),

    // Used to create an own service manager. May contain one or more child arrays.
    'service_listener_options' => array(
       array(
         'service_manager' => $stringServiceManagerName,
         'config_key'      => $stringConfigKey,
         'interface'       => $stringOptionalInterface,
         'method'          => $stringRequiredMethodName,
       ),
    )

    // Initial configuration with which to seed the ServiceManager.
    // Should be compatible with Zend\ServiceManager\Config.
    'service_manager' => array(
    ),
);

For an example, see the ZendSkeletonApplication configuration file.

Default Configuration Options

The following options are available when using the default services configured by the ServiceManagerConfig and ViewManager.

These configuration directives can go to the config/autoload/{,*.}{global,local}.php files, or in the module/<module name>/config/module.config.php configuration files. The merging of these configuration files is done by the ModuleManager. It first merges each module’s module.config.php file, and then the files in config/autoload (first the *.global.php and then the *.local.php files). The order of the merge is relevant so you can override a module’s configuration with your application configuration. If you have both a config/autoload/my.global.config.php and config/autoload/my.local.config.php, the local configuration file overrides the global configuration.

Warning

Local configuration files are intended to keep sensitive information, such as database credentials, and as such, it is highly recommended to keep these local configuration files out of your VCS. The ZendSkeletonApplication‘s config/autoload/.gitignore file ignores *.local.php files by default.

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<?php
return array(
    // The following are used to configure controller loader
    // Should be compatible with Zend\ServiceManager\Config.
    'controllers' => array(
        // Map of controller "name" to class
        // This should be used if you do not need to inject any dependencies
        // in your controller
        'invokables' => array(
        ),

        // Map of controller "name" to factory for creating controller instance
        // You may provide either the class name of a factory, or a PHP callback.
        'factories' => array(
        ),
    ),

    // The following are used to configure controller plugin loader
    // Should be compatible with Zend\ServiceManager\Config.
    'controller_plugins' => array(
    ),

    // The following are used to configure view helper manager
    // Should be compatible with Zend\ServiceManager\Config.
    'view_helpers' => array(
    ),

    // The following is used to configure a Zend\Di\Di instance.
    // The array should be in a format that Zend\Di\Config can understand.
    'di' => array(
    ),

    // Configuration for the Router service
    // Can contain any router configuration, but typically will always define
    // the routes for the application. See the router documentation for details
    // on route configuration.
    'router' => array(
        'routes' => array(
        ),
    ),

    // ViewManager configuration
    'view_manager' => array(
        // Base URL path to the application
        'base_path' => $stringBasePath,

        // Doctype with which to seed the Doctype helper
        'doctype' => $doctypeHelperConstantString, // e.g. HTML5, XHTML1

        // TemplateMapResolver configuration
        // template/path pairs
        'template_map' => array(
        ),

        // TemplatePathStack configuration
        // module/view script path pairs
        'template_path_stack' => array(
        ),

        // Layout template name
        'layout' => $layoutTemplateName, // e.g., 'layout/layout'

        // ExceptionStrategy configuration
        'display_exceptions' => $bool, // display exceptions in template
        'exception_template' => $stringTemplateName, // e.g. 'error'

        // RouteNotFoundStrategy configuration
        'display_not_found_reason' => $bool, // display 404 reason in template
        'not_found_template' => $stringTemplateName, // e.g. '404'

        // Additional strategies to attach
        // These should be class names or service names of View strategy classes
        // that act as ListenerAggregates. They will be attached at priority 100,
        // in the order registered.
        'strategies' => array(
            'ViewJsonStrategy', // register JSON renderer strategy
            'ViewFeedStrategy', // register Feed renderer strategy
        ),
    ),
);

For an example, see the Application module configuration file in the ZendSkeletonApplication.

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