Zend\ServiceManager

Zend\ServiceManager Quick Start

By default, Zend Framework utilizes Zend\ServiceManager within the MVC layer and in various other components. As such, in most cases you’ll be providing services, invokable classes, aliases, and factories either via configuration or via your module classes.

By default, the module manager listener Zend\ModuleManager\Listener\ServiceListener will do the following:

  • For modules implementing Zend\ModuleManager\Feature\ServiceProviderInterface, or the getServiceConfig() method, it will call that method and merge the retrieved configuration.
  • After all modules have been processed, it will grab the configuration from the registered Zend\ModuleManager\Listener\ConfigListener, and merge any configuration under the service_manager key.
  • Finally, it will use the merged configuration to configure the ServiceManager instance.

In most cases, you won’t interact with the ServiceManager, other than to providing services to it; your application will typically rely on the configuration of the ServiceManager to ensure that services are configured correctly with their dependencies. When creating factories, however, you may want to interact with the ServiceManager to retrieve other services to inject as dependencies. Additionally, there are some cases where you may want to receive the ServiceManager to lazy-retrieve dependencies; as such, you may want to implement ServiceLocatorAwareInterface and know more details about the API of the ServiceManager.

Using Configuration

Configuration requires a service_manager key at the top level of your configuration, with any of the following sub-keys:

  • abstract_factories, which should be an array of abstract factory class names.
  • aliases, which should be an associative array of alias name/target name pairs (where the target name may also be an alias).
  • factories, an array of service name/factory class name pairs. The factories should be either classes implementing Zend\ServiceManager\FactoryInterface or invokable classes. If you are using PHP configuration files, you may provide any PHP callable as the factory.
  • invokables, an array of service name/class name pairs. The class name should be class that may be directly instantiated without any constructor arguments.
  • services, an array of service name/object pairs. Clearly, this will only work with PHP configuration.
  • shared, an array of service name/boolean pairs, indicating whether or not a service should be shared. By default, the ServiceManager assumes all services are shared, but you may specify a boolean false value here to indicate a new instance should be returned.

Modules as Service Providers

Modules may act as service configuration providers. To do so, the Module class must either implement Zend\ModuleManager\Feature\ServiceProviderInterface or simply the method getServiceConfig() (which is also defined in the interface). This method must return one of the following:

  • An array (or Traversable object) of configuration compatible with Zend\ServiceManager\Config. (Basically, it should have the keys for configuration as discussed in the previous section.
  • A string providing the name of a class implementing Zend\ServiceManager\ConfigInterface.
  • An instance of either Zend\ServiceManager\Config, or an object implementing Zend\ServiceManager\ConfigInterface.

As noted previously, this configuration will be merged with the configuration returned from other modules as well as configuration files, prior to being passed to the ServiceManager; this allows overriding configuration from modules easily.

Examples

Sample Configuration

The following is valid configuration for any configuration being merged in your application, and demonstrates each of the possible configuration keys. Configuration is merged in the following order:

  • Configuration returned from Module classes via the getServiceConfig() method, in the order in which modules are processed.
  • Module configuration under the service_manager key, in the order in which modules are processed.
  • Application configuration under the config/autoload/ directory, in the order in which they are processed.

As such, you have a variety of ways to override service manager configuration settings.

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<?php
// a module configuration, "module/SomeModule/config/module.config.php"
return array(
    'service_manager' => array(
        'abstract_factories' => array(
            // Valid values include names of classes implementing
            // AbstractFactoryInterface, instances of classes implementing
            // AbstractFactoryInterface, or any PHP callbacks
            'SomeModule\Service\FallbackFactory',
        ),
        'aliases' => array(
            // Aliasing a FQCN to a service name
            'SomeModule\Model\User' => 'User',
            // Aliasing a name to a known service name
            'AdminUser' => 'User',
            // Aliasing to an alias
            'SuperUser' => 'AdminUser',
        ),
        'factories' => array(
            // Keys are the service names.
            // Valid values include names of classes implementing
            // FactoryInterface, instances of classes implementing
            // FactoryInterface, or any PHP callbacks
            'User'     => 'SomeModule\Service\UserFactory',
            'UserForm' => function ($serviceManager) {
                $form = new SomeModule\Form\User();

                // Retrieve a dependency from the service manager and inject it!
                $form->setInputFilter($serviceManager->get('UserInputFilter'));
                return $form;
            },
        ),
        'invokables' => array(
            // Keys are the service names
            // Values are valid class names to instantiate.
            'UserInputFiler' => 'SomeModule\InputFilter\User',
        ),
        'services' => array(
            // Keys are the service names
            // Values are objects
            'Auth' => new SomeModule\Authentication\AuthenticationService(),
        ),
        'shared' => array(
            // Usually, you'll only indicate services that should **NOT** be
            // shared -- i.e., ones where you want a different instance
            // every time.
            'UserForm' => false,
        ),
    ),
);

Note

Configuration and PHP

Typically, you should not have your configuration files create new instances of objects or even closures for factories; at the time of configuration, not all autoloading may be in place, and if another configuration overwrites this one later, you’re now spending CPU and memory performing work that is ultimately lost.

For instances that require factories, write a factory. If you’d like to inject specific, configured instances, use the Module class to do so, or a listener.

Additionally you will lose the ability to use the caching feature of the configuration files when you use closures within them. This is a limitation of PHP which can’t (de)serialize closures.

Note

Service names good practices

When defining a new service, it is usually a good idea to use the fully qualified class name of the produced instance or of one of the interfaces it implements as service name.

Using a FQCN as service name makes collisions with other services very hard if the class is part of your own code base, and also aids the developer that consumes that service to have a clear overview on what the API of the service looks like.

If the service is not an instance of a class/interface of your own code base, you should always consider using a prefix for it, so that collisions with other services are avoided.

Module Returning an Array

The following demonstrates returning an array of configuration from a module class. It can be substantively the same as the array configuration from the previous example.

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namespace SomeModule;

// you may eventually want to implement Zend\ModuleManager\Feature\ServiceProviderInterface
class Module
{
    public function getServiceConfig()
    {
        return array(
            'abstract_factories' => array(),
            'aliases' => array(),
            'factories' => array(),
            'invokables' => array(),
            'services' => array(),
            'shared' => array(),
        );
    }
}

Creating a ServiceLocator-aware class

By default, the Zend Framework MVC registers an initializer that will inject the ServiceManager instance, which is an implementation of Zend\ServiceManager\ServiceLocatorInterface, into any class implementing Zend\ServiceManager\ServiceLocatorAwareInterface.

A simple implementation looks like following:

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namespace SomeModule\Controller;

use Zend\ServiceManager\ServiceLocatorAwareInterface;
use Zend\ServiceManager\ServiceLocatorInterface;
use Zend\Stdlib\DispatchableInterface as Dispatchable;
use Zend\Stdlib\RequestInterface as Request;
use Zend\Stdlib\ResponseInterface as Response;

class BareController implements
    Dispatchable,
    ServiceLocatorAwareInterface
{
    protected $services;

    public function setServiceLocator(ServiceLocatorInterface $serviceLocator)
    {
        $this->services = $serviceLocator;
    }

    public function getServiceLocator()
    {
        return $this->services;
    }

    public function dispatch(Request $request, Response $response = null)
    {
        // ...

        // Retrieve something from the service manager
        $router = $this->getServiceLocator()->get('Router');

        // ...
    }
}
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