Zend\Mvc

Default Services

The default and recommended way to write Zend Framework applications uses a set of services defined in the Zend\Mvc\Service namespace. This chapter details what each of those services are, the classes they represent, and the configuration options available.

Many of the services are provided by other components, and the factories and abstract factories themselves are defined in the individual components. We will cover those factories in this chapter, however, as usage is generally the same between each.

Theory of Operation

To allow easy configuration of all the different parts of the MVC system, a somewhat complex set of services and their factories has been created. We’ll try to give a simplified explanation of the process.

When a Zend\Mvc\Application is created, a Zend\ServiceManager\ServiceManager object is created and configured via Zend\Mvc\Service\ServiceManagerConfig. The ServiceManagerConfig gets the configuration from application.config.php (or some other application configuration you passed to the Application when creating it). From all the service and factories provided in the Zend\Mvc\Service namespace, ServiceManagerConfig is responsible of configuring only three: SharedEventManager, EventManager, and ModuleManager.

After this, the Application calls for the ModuleManager. At this point, the ModuleManager further configures the ServiceManager with services and factories provided in Zend\Mvc\Service\ServiceListenerFactory. This approach allows us to keep the main application configuration concise, and to give the developer the power to configure different parts of the MVC system from within the modules, overriding any default configuration in these MVC services.

ServiceManager

As a quick review, the following service types may be configured:

  • Invokable services, which map a service name to a class that has no constructor or a constructor that accepts no arguments.
  • Factories, which map a service name to a factory which will create and return an object. A factory receives the service manager as an argument, and may be any PHP callable, or a class or object that implements Zend\ServiceManager\FactoryInterface.
  • Abstract factories, which are factories that can create any number of named services that share the same instantiation pattern; examples include database adapters, cache adapters, loggers, etc. The factory receives the service manager as an argument, the resolved service name, and the requested service name; it must be a class or object implementing Zend\ServiceManager\AbstractFactoryInterface. See the section on abstract factories for configuration information.
  • Aliases, which alias one service name to another. Aliases can also reference other aliases.
  • Initializers, which receive the newly created instance and the service manager, and which can be used to perform additional initialization tasks. The most common use case is to test the instance against specific “Aware” interfaces, and, if matching, inject them with the appropriate service.
  • Plugin managers, which are specialized service managers used to manage objects that are of a related type, such as view helpers, controller plugins, controllers, etc. Plugin managers accept configuration just like service managers, and as such can compose invokable services, factories, abstract factories, aliases, and initializers. They are also ServiceLocatorAware, and will be injected with the application service manager instance, giving factories and abstract factories access to application-level services when needed. See the heading Plugin managers for a list of available plugin managers.

The application service manager is referenced directly during bootstrapping, and has the following services configured out of the box.

  • Invokable services

    • DispatchListener, mapping to Zend\Mvc\DispatchListener.
    • RouteListener, mapping to Zend\Mvc\RouteListener.
    • SendResponseListener, mapping to Zend\Mvc\SendResponseListener.
    • SharedEventManager, mapping to Zend\EventManager\SharedEventManager.
  • Factories

    • Application, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\ApplicationFactory.

    • Config, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\ConfigFactory. Internally, this pulls the ModuleManager service, and calls its loadModules() method, and retrieves the merged configuration from the module event. As such, this service contains the entire, merged application configuration.

    • ControllerManager, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\ControllerLoaderFactory. This creates an instance of Zend\Mvc\Controller\ControllerManager, passing the service manager instance.

      Additionally, it uses the DiStrictAbstractServiceFactory service – effectively allowing you to fall back to DI in order to retrieve your controllers. If you want to use Zend\Di to retrieve your controllers, you must white-list them in your DI configuration under the allowed_controllers key (otherwise, they will just be ignored).

      The ControllerManager will add an initializer that will do the following:

      • If the controller implements the Zend\ServiceManager\ServiceLocatorAwareInterface interface, an instance of the ServiceManager will be injected into it.
      • If the controller implements the Zend\EventManager\EventManagerAwareInterface interface, an instance of the EventManager will be injected into it.
      • Finally, an initializer will inject it with the ControllerPluginManager service, as long as the setPluginManager method is implemented.
    • ControllerPluginManager, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\ControllerPluginManagerFactory. This instantiates the Zend\Mvc\Controller\PluginManager instance, passing it the service manager instance. It also uses the DiAbstractServiceFactory service – effectively allowing you to fall back to DI in order to retrieve your controller plugins.

      It registers a set of default controller plugins, and contains an initializer for injecting plugins with the current controller.

    • ConsoleAdapter, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\ConsoleAdapterFactory. This grabs the Config service, pulls from the console key, and do the following:

      • If the adapter subkey is present, it is used to get the adapter instance, otherwise, Zend\Console\Console::detectBestAdapter() will be called to configure an adapter instance.
      • If the charset subkey is present, the is used to set the adapter charset.
    • ConsoleRouter, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\RouterFactory. This grabs the Config service, and pulls from the console key and router subkey, configuring a Zend\Mvc\Router\Console\SimpleRouteStack instance.

    • ConsoleViewManager, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\ConsoleViewManagerFactory. This creates and returns an instance of Zend\Mvc\View\Console\ViewManager, which in turn registers and initializes a number of console-specific view services.

    • DependencyInjector, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\DiFactory. This pulls the Config service, and looks for a “di” key; if found, that value is used to configure a new Zend\Di\Di instance.

    • DiAbstractServiceFactory, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\DiAbstractServiceFactoryFactory. This creates an instance of Zend\ServiceManager\Di\DiAbstractServiceFactory injecting the Di service instance. That instance is attached to the service manager as an abstract factory – effectively enabling DI as a fallback for providing services.

    • DiServiceInitializer, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\DiServiceInitializerFactory. This creates an instance of Zend\ServiceManager\Di\DiServiceInitializer injecting the Di service and the service manager itself.

    • DiStrictAbstractServiceFactory, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\DiStrictAbstractServiceFactoryFactory. This creates an instance of Zend\Mvc\Service\DiStrictAbstractServiceFactoryFactory injecting the Di service instance.

    • EventManager, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\EventManagerFactory. This factory returns a new instance of Zend\EventManager\EventManager on each request. This service is not shared by default, allowing the ability to have an EventManager per service, with a shared SharedEventManager injected in each.

    • FilterManager, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\FilterManagerFactory. This instantiates the Zend\Filter\FilterPluginManager instance, passing it the service manager instance – this is used to manage filters for the filter chains. It also uses the DiAbstractServiceFactory service – effectively allowing you to fall back to DI in order to retrieve filters.

    • FormElementManager, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\FormElementManagerFactory. This instantiates the Zend\Form\FormElementManager instance, passing it the service manager instance – this is used to manage form elements. It also uses the DiAbstractServiceFactory service – effectively allowing you to fall back to DI in order to retrieve form elements.

    • HttpRouter, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\RouterFactory. This grabs the Config service, and pulls from the router key, configuring a Zend\Mvc\Router\Http\TreeRouteStack instance.

    • HttpViewManager, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\HttpViewManagerFactory. This creates and returns an instance of Zend\Mvc\View\Http\ViewManager, which in turn registers and initializes a number of HTTP-specific view services.

    • HydratorManager, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\HydratorManagerFactory. This creates and returns an instance of Zend\Stdlib\Hydrator\HydratorPluginManager, which can be used to manage and persist hydrator instances.

    • InputFilterManager, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\InputFilterManagerFactory. This creates and returns an instance of Zend\InputFilter\InputFilterPluginManager, which can be used to manage and persist input filter instances.

    • ModuleManager, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\ModuleManagerFactory.

      This is perhaps the most complex factory in the MVC stack. It expects that an ApplicationConfig service has been injected, with keys for module_listener_options and modules; see the quick start for samples.

      It instantiates an instance of Zend\ModuleManager\Listener\DefaultListenerAggregate, using the “module_listener_options” retrieved. Checks if a service with the name ServiceListener exists, otherwise it sets a factory with that name mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\ServiceListenerFactory. A bunch of service listeners will be added to the ServiceListener, like listeners for the getServiceConfig, getControllerConfig, getControllerPluginConfig, getViewHelperConfig module methods.

      Next, it retrieves the EventManager service, and attaches the above listeners.

      It instantiates a Zend\ModuleManager\ModuleEvent instance, setting the “ServiceManager” parameter to the service manager object.

      Finally, it instantiates a Zend\ModuleManager\ModuleManager instance, and injects the EventManager and ModuleEvent.

    • MvcTranslator, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\TranslatorServiceFactory, and returning an instance of Zend\Mvc\I18n\Translator, which extends Zend\I18n\Translator\Translator and implements Zend\Validator\Translator\TranslatorInterface, allowing the instance to be used anywhere a translator may be required in the framework.

    • PaginatorPluginManager, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\PaginatorPluginManagerFactory. This instantiates the Zend\Paginator\AdapterPluginManager instance, passing it the service manager instance – this is used to manage paginator adapters. It also uses the DiAbstractServiceFactory service – effectively allowing you to fall back to DI in order to retrieve paginator adapters.

    • Request, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\RequestFactory. The factory is used to create and return a request instance, according to the current environment. If the current environment is cli, it will create a Zend\Console\Request, or a Zend\Http\PhpEnvironment\Request if the current environment is HTTP.

    • Response, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\ResponseFactory. The factory is used to create and return a response instance, according to the current environment. If the current environment is cli, it will create a Zend\Console\Response, or a Zend\Http\PhpEnvironment\Response if the current environment is HTTP.

    • Router, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\RouterFactory. If in a console enviroment, this will behave the same way as the ConsoleRouter service, if not, it will behave the same way as HttpRouter service.

    • RoutePluginManager, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\RoutePluginManagerFactory. This instantiates the Zend\Mvc\Router\RoutePluginManager instance, passing it the service manager instance – this is used to manage route types. It also uses the DiAbstractServiceFactory service – effectively allowing you to fall back to DI in order to retrieve route types.

    • SerializerAdapterManager, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\SerializerAdapterPluginManagerFactory, which returns an instance of Zend\Serializer\AdapterPluginManager. This is a plugin manager for managing serializer adapter instances.

    • ServiceListener, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\ServiceListenerFactory. The factory is used to instantiate the ServiceListener, while allowing easy extending. It checks if a service with the name ServiceListenerInterface exists, which must implement Zend\ModuleManager\Listener\ServiceListenerInterface, before instantiating the default ServiceListener.

      In addition to this, it retrieves the ApplicationConfig and looks for the service_listener_options key. This allows you to register own listeners for module methods and configuration keys to create an own service manager; see the application configuration options for samples.

    • ValidatorManager, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\ValidatorManagerFactory. This instantiates the Zend\Validator\ValidatorPluginManager instance, passing it the service manager instance – this is used to manage validators. It also uses the DiAbstractServiceFactory service – effectively allowing you to fall back to DI in order to retrieve validators.

    • ViewFeedRenderer, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\ViewFeedRendererFactory, which returns an instance of Zend\View\Renderer\FeedRenderer, used to render feeds.

    • ViewFeedStrategy, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\ViewFeedStrategyFactory, which returns an instance of Zend\View\Strategy\FeedStrategy, used to select the ViewFeedRenderer given the appropriate criteria.

    • ViewHelperManager, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\ViewHelperManagerFactory, which returns an instance of Zend\View\HelperManager. This is a plugin manager for managing view helper instances.

    • ViewJsonRenderer, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\ViewJsonRendererFactory, which returns an instance of Zend\View\Renderer\JsonRenderer, used to render JSON structures.

    • ViewJsonStrategy, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\ViewJsonStrategyFactory, which returns an instance of Zend\View\Strategy\JsonStrategy, used to select the ViewJsonRenderer given the appropriate criteria.

    • ViewManager, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\ViewManagerFactory. The factory is used to create and return a view manager, according to the current environment. If the current environment is cli, it will create a Zend\Mvc\View\Console\ViewManager, or a Zend\Mvc\View\Http\ViewManager if the current environment is HTTP.

    • ViewResolver, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\ViewResolverFactory, which creates and returns the aggregate view resolver. It also attaches the ViewTemplateMapResolver and ViewTemplatePathStack services to it.

    • ViewTemplateMapResolver, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\ViewTemplateMapResolverFactory which creates, configures and returns the Zend\View\Resolver\TemplateMapResolver.

    • ViewTemplatePathStack, mapping to Zend\Mvc\Service\ViewTemplatePathStackFactory which creates, configures and returns the Zend\View\Resolver\TemplatePathStack.

  • Abstract factories

    • Zend\Cache\Service\StorageCacheAbstractServiceFactory (opt-in; registered by default in the skeleton application).
    • Zend\Db\Adapter\AdapterAbstractServiceFactory (opt-in).
    • Zend\Form\FormAbstractServiceFactory is registered by default.
    • Zend\Log\LoggerAbstractServiceFactory (opt-in; registered by default in the skeleton application).
  • Aliases

    • Configuration, mapping to the Config service.
    • Console, mapping to the ConsoleAdapter service.
    • Di, mapping to the DependencyInjector service.
    • Zend\Di\LocatorInterface, mapping to the DependencyInjector service.
    • Zend\EventManager\EventManagerInterface, mapping to the EventManager service. This is mainly to ensure that when falling through to DI, classes are still injected via the ServiceManager.
    • Zend\Mvc\Controller\PluginManager, mapping to the ControllerPluginManager service. This is mainly to ensure that when falling through to DI, classes are still injected via the ServiceManager.
    • Zend\View\Resolver\TemplateMapResolver, mapping to the ViewTemplateMapResolver service.
    • Zend\View\Resolver\TemplatePathStack, mapping to the ViewTemplatePathStack service.
    • Zend\View\Resolver\AggregateResolver, mapping to the ViewResolver service.
    • Zend\View\Resolver\ResolverInterface, mapping to the ViewResolver service.
  • Initializers

    • For objects that implement Zend\EventManager\EventManagerAwareInterface, the EventManager service will be retrieved and injected. This service is not shared, though each instance it creates is injected with a shared instance of SharedEventManager.
    • For objects that implement Zend\ServiceManager\ServiceLocatorAwareInterface, the ServiceManager will inject itself into the object.
    • The ServiceManager registers itself as the ServiceManager service, and aliases itself to the class names Zend\ServiceManager\ServiceLocatorInterface and Zend\ServiceManager\ServiceManager.

Abstract Factories

As noted in the previous section, Zend Framework provides a number of abstract service factories by default. Each is noted below, along with sample configuration.

In each instance, the abstract factory looks for a top-level configuration key, consisting of key/value pairs where the key is the service name, and the value is the configuration to use to create the given service.

Zend\Cache\Service\StorageCacheAbstractServiceFactory

This abstract factory is opt-in, but registered by default in the skeleton application. It uses the top-level configuration key “caches”.

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return array(
    'caches' => array(
        'Cache\Transient' => array(
            'adapter' => 'redis',
            'ttl'     => 60,
            'plugins' => array(
                'exception_handler' => array(
                    'throw_exceptions' => false,
                ),
            ),
        ),
        'Cache\Persistence' => array(
            'adapter' => 'filesystem',
            'ttl'     => 86400,
        ),
    ),
);

See the cache documentation for more configuration options.

Zend\Db\Adapter\AdapterAbstractServiceFactory

This abstract factory is opt-in. It uses the top-level configuration key “db”, with a subkey “adapters”.

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return array(
    'db' => array('adapters' => array(
        'Db\ReadOnly' => array(
            'driver'   => 'Pdo_Sqlite',
            'database' => 'data/db/users.db',
        ),
        'Db\Writeable' => array(
            'driver'   => 'Mysqli',
            'database' => 'users',
            'username' => 'developer',
            'password' => 'developer_password',
        ),
    )),
);

See the DB adapter documentation for more configuration options.

Zend\Form\FormAbstractServiceFactory

This abstract factory is registered by default. It uses the top-level configuration key “forms”. It makes use of the FilterManager, FormElementManager, HydratorManager, InputFilterManager, and ValidatorManager plugin managers in order to allow instantiation and creation of form objects and all related objects in the form hierarchy.

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return array(
    'forms' => array(
        'Form\Foo' => array(
            'hydrator' => 'ObjectProperty',
            'type'     => 'Zend\Form\Form',
            'elements' => array(
                array(
                    'spec' => array(
                        'type' => 'Zend\Form\Element\Email',
                        'name' => 'email',
                        'options' => array(
                            'label' => 'Your email address',
                        ),
                    ),
                ),
            ),
        ),
    ),
);

Form configuration follows the same configuration you would use with a form factory; the primary difference is that all plugin managers have already been injected for you, allowing you the possibility of custom objects or substitutions.

See the form factory documentation for more configuration options.

Zend\Log\LoggerAbstractServiceFactory

This abstract factory is opt-in, but registered by default in the skeleton application. It uses the top-level configuration key “log”.

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return array(
    'log' => array(
        'Log\App' => array(
            'writers' => array(
                array(
                    'name' => 'stream',
                    'priority' => 1000,
                    'options' => array(
                        'stream' => 'data/logs/app.log',
                    ),
                ),
            ),
        ),
    ),
);

See the log documentation for more configuration options.

Plugin Managers

The following plugin managers are configured by default:

  • ControllerManager, corresponding to Zend\Mvc\Controller\ControllerManager, and used to manage controller instances.
  • ControllerPluginManager, corresponding to Zend\Mvc\Controller\PluginManager, and used to manage controller plugin instances.
  • FilterManager, corresponding to Zend\Filter\FilterPluginManager, and used to manage filter instances.
  • FormElementManager, corresponding to Zend\Form\FormElementManager, and used to manage instances of form elements and fieldsets.
  • HydratorManager, corresponding to Zend\Stdlib\Hydrator\HydratorPluginManager, and used to manage hydrator instances.
  • InputFilterManager, corresponding to Zend\InputFilter\InputFilterPluginManager, and used to manage input filter instances.
  • RoutePluginManager, corresponding to Zend\Mvc\Router\RoutePluginManager, and used to manage route instances.
  • SerializerAdapterManager, corresponding to Zend\Serializer\AdapterPluginManager, and used to manage serializer instances.
  • ValidatorManager, corresponding to Zend\Validator\ValidatorPluginManager, and used to manage validator instances.
  • ViewHelperManager, corresponding to Zend\View\HelperPluginManager, and used to manage view helper instances.

As noted in the previous section, all plugin managers share the same configuration and service types as the standard service manager; they are simply scoped, and only allow instances of certain types to be created or registered. Default types available are listed in the documentation for each component.

ViewManager

The View layer within Zend\Mvc consists of a large number of collaborators and event listeners. As such, Zend\Mvc\View\ViewManager was created to handle creation of the various objects, as well as wiring them together and establishing event listeners.

The ViewManager itself is an event listener on the bootstrap event. It retrieves the ServiceManager from the Application object, as well as its composed EventManager.

Configuration for all members of the ViewManager fall under the view_manager configuration key, and expect values as noted below. The following services are created and managed by the ViewManager:

  • ViewHelperManager, representing and aliased to Zend\View\HelperPluginManager. It is seeded with the ServiceManager. Created via the Zend\Mvc\Service\ViewHelperManagerFactory.
    • The Router service is retrieved, and injected into the Url helper.
    • If the base_path key is present, it is used to inject the BasePath view helper; otherwise, the Request service is retrieved, and the value of its getBasePath() method is used.
    • If the doctype key is present, it will be used to set the value of the Doctype view helper.
  • ViewTemplateMapResolver, representing and aliased to Zend\View\Resolver\TemplateMapResolver. If a template_map key is present, it will be used to seed the template map.
  • ViewTemplatePathStack, representing and aliased to Zend\View\Resolver\TemplatePathStack.
    • If a template_path_stack key is present, it will be used to seed the stack.
    • If a default_template_suffix key is present, it will be used as the default suffix for template scripts resolving.
  • ViewResolver, representing and aliased to Zend\View\Resolver\AggregateResolver and Zend\View\Resolver\ResolverInterface. It is seeded with the ViewTemplateMapResolver and ViewTemplatePathStack services as resolvers.
  • ViewRenderer, representing and aliased to Zend\View\Renderer\PhpRenderer and Zend\View\Renderer\RendererInterface. It is seeded with the ViewResolver and ViewHelperManager services. Additionally, the ViewModel helper gets seeded with the ViewModel as its root (layout) model.
  • ViewPhpRendererStrategy, representing and aliased to Zend\View\Strategy\PhpRendererStrategy. It gets seeded with the ViewRenderer service.
  • View, representing and aliased to Zend\View\View. It gets seeded with the EventManager service, and attaches the ViewPhpRendererStrategy as an aggregate listener.
  • DefaultRenderingStrategy, representing and aliased to Zend\Mvc\View\DefaultRenderingStrategy. If the layout key is present, it is used to seed the strategy’s layout template. It is seeded with the View service.
  • ExceptionStrategy, representing and aliased to Zend\Mvc\View\ExceptionStrategy. If the display_exceptions or exception_template keys are present, they are used to configure the strategy.
  • RouteNotFoundStrategy, representing and aliased to Zend\Mvc\View\RouteNotFoundStrategy and 404Strategy. If the display_not_found_reason or not_found_template keys are present, they are used to configure the strategy.
  • ViewModel. In this case, no service is registered; the ViewModel is simply retrieved from the MvcEvent and injected with the layout template name.

The ViewManager also creates several other listeners, but does not expose them as services; these include Zend\Mvc\View\CreateViewModelListener, Zend\Mvc\View\InjectTemplateListener, and Zend\Mvc\View\InjectViewModelListener. These, along with RouteNotFoundStrategy, ExceptionStrategy, and DefaultRenderingStrategy are attached as listeners either to the application EventManager instance or the SharedEventManager instance.

Finally, if you have a strategies key in your configuration, the ViewManager will loop over these and attach them in order to the View service as listeners, at a priority of 100 (allowing them to execute before the DefaultRenderingStrategy).

Application Configuration Options

The following options may be used to provide initial configuration for the ServiceManager, ModuleManager, and Application instances, allowing them to then find and aggregate the configuration used for the Config service, which is intended for configuring all other objects in the system. These configuration directives go to the config/application.config.php file.

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<?php
return array(
    // This should be an array of module namespaces used in the application.
    'modules' => array(
    ),

    // These are various options for the listeners attached to the ModuleManager
    'module_listener_options' => array(
        // This should be an array of paths in which modules reside.
        // If a string key is provided, the listener will consider that a module
        // namespace, the value of that key the specific path to that module's
        // Module class.
        'module_paths' => array(
        ),

        // An array of paths from which to glob configuration files after
        // modules are loaded. These effectively override configuration
        // provided by modules themselves. Paths may use GLOB_BRACE notation.
        'config_glob_paths' => array(
        ),

        // Whether or not to enable a configuration cache.
        // If enabled, the merged configuration will be cached and used in
        // subsequent requests.
        'config_cache_enabled' => $booleanValue,

        // The key used to create the configuration cache file name.
        'config_cache_key' => $stringKey,

        // Whether or not to enable a module class map cache.
        // If enabled, creates a module class map cache which will be used
        // by in future requests, to reduce the autoloading process.
        'module_map_cache_enabled' => $booleanValue,

        // The key used to create the class map cache file name.
        'module_map_cache_key' => $stringKey,

        // The path in which to cache merged configuration.
        'cache_dir' => $stringPath,

        // Whether or not to enable modules dependency checking.
        // Enabled by default, prevents usage of modules that depend on other modules
        // that weren't loaded.
        'check_dependencies' => $booleanValue,
    ),

    // Used to create an own service manager. May contain one or more child arrays.
    'service_listener_options' => array(
       array(
         'service_manager' => $stringServiceManagerName,
         'config_key'      => $stringConfigKey,
         'interface'       => $stringOptionalInterface,
         'method'          => $stringRequiredMethodName,
       ),
    )

    // Initial configuration with which to seed the ServiceManager.
    // Should be compatible with Zend\ServiceManager\Config.
    'service_manager' => array(
    ),
);

For an example, see the ZendSkeletonApplication configuration file.

Default Configuration Options

The following options are available when using the default services configured by the ServiceManagerConfig and ViewManager.

These configuration directives can go to the config/autoload/{,*.}{global,local}.php files, or in the module/<module name>/config/module.config.php configuration files. The merging of these configuration files is done by the ModuleManager. It first merges each module’s module.config.php file, and then the files in config/autoload (first the *.global.php and then the *.local.php files). The order of the merge is relevant so you can override a module’s configuration with your application configuration. If you have both a config/autoload/my.global.config.php and config/autoload/my.local.config.php, the local configuration file overrides the global configuration.

Warning

Local configuration files are intended to keep sensitive information, such as database credentials, and as such, it is highly recommended to keep these local configuration files out of your VCS. The ZendSkeletonApplication‘s config/autoload/.gitignore file ignores *.local.php files by default.

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<?php
return array(
    // The following are used to configure controller loader
    // Should be compatible with Zend\ServiceManager\Config.
    'controllers' => array(
        // Map of controller "name" to class
        // This should be used if you do not need to inject any dependencies
        // in your controller
        'invokables' => array(
        ),

        // Map of controller "name" to factory for creating controller instance
        // You may provide either the class name of a factory, or a PHP callback.
        'factories' => array(
        ),
    ),

    // The following are used to configure controller plugin loader
    // Should be compatible with Zend\ServiceManager\Config.
    'controller_plugins' => array(
    ),

    // The following are used to configure view helper manager
    // Should be compatible with Zend\ServiceManager\Config.
    'view_helpers' => array(
    ),

    // The following is used to configure a Zend\Di\Di instance.
    // The array should be in a format that Zend\Di\Config can understand.
    'di' => array(
    ),

    // Configuration for the Router service
    // Can contain any router configuration, but typically will always define
    // the routes for the application. See the router documentation for details
    // on route configuration.
    'router' => array(
        'routes' => array(
        ),
    ),

    // ViewManager configuration
    'view_manager' => array(
        // Base URL path to the application
        'base_path' => $stringBasePath,

        // Doctype with which to seed the Doctype helper
        'doctype' => $doctypeHelperConstantString, // e.g. HTML5, XHTML1

        // TemplateMapResolver configuration
        // template/path pairs
        'template_map' => array(
        ),

        // TemplatePathStack configuration
        // module/view script path pairs
        'template_path_stack' => array(
        ),
        // Default suffix to use when resolving template scripts, if none, 'phtml' is used
        'default_template_suffix' => $templateSuffix, // e.g. 'php'

        // Layout template name
        'layout' => $layoutTemplateName, // e.g. 'layout/layout'

        // ExceptionStrategy configuration
        'display_exceptions' => $bool, // display exceptions in template
        'exception_template' => $stringTemplateName, // e.g. 'error'

        // RouteNotFoundStrategy configuration
        'display_not_found_reason' => $bool, // display 404 reason in template
        'not_found_template' => $stringTemplateName, // e.g. '404'

        // Additional strategies to attach
        // These should be class names or service names of View strategy classes
        // that act as ListenerAggregates. They will be attached at priority 100,
        // in the order registered.
        'strategies' => array(
            'ViewJsonStrategy', // register JSON renderer strategy
            'ViewFeedStrategy', // register Feed renderer strategy
        ),
    ),
);

For an example, see the Application module configuration file in the ZendSkeletonApplication.

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