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<ac:macro ac:name="info"><ac:parameter ac:name="title">Temporary Location for Coding Standards Review</ac:parameter><ac:rich-text-body>
<p>The coding standards official location can be found in the <a href="http://framework.zend.com/manual/en/coding-standard.html">Zend Framework Online Manual</a> and are copied here for review and updates before being placed back into DocBook format in Subversion. The manual also contains translated versions that are not available here.</p></ac:rich-text-body></ac:macro>

<h1>Table of Contents</h1>

<ac:macro ac:name="toc-zone"><ac:parameter ac:name="location">top</ac:parameter><ac:parameter ac:name="type">list</ac:parameter><ac:parameter ac:name="style">none</ac:parameter><ac:parameter ac:name="outline">true</ac:parameter><ac:parameter ac:name="indent">20px</ac:parameter><ac:parameter ac:name="printable">true</ac:parameter><ac:rich-text-body>

<h1>Overview</h1>

<h2>Scope</h2>

<p>This document provides the coding standards and guidelines for developers and teams working on or with the Zend Framework. The subjects covered are:</p>

<ul>
<li>PHP File Formatting</li>
<li>Naming Conventions</li>
<li>Coding Style</li>
<li>Inline Documentation</li>
<li>Errors and Exceptions</li>
<li>CodeSniffer Testbed</li>
</ul>

<h2>Goals</h2>

<p>Good coding standards are important in any development project, particularly when multiple developers are working on the same project. Having coding standards helps to ensure that the code is of high quality, has fewer bugs, and is easily maintained.</p>

<p>Abstract goals we strive for:</p>
<ul>
<li>extreme simplicity</li>
<li>tool friendliness, such as use of method signatures, constants, and patterns that support IDE tools and auto-completion of method, class, and constant names.</li>
</ul>

<p>When considering the goals above, each situation requires an examination of the circumstances and balancing of various trade-offs.</p>

<h1>PHP File Formatting</h1>

<h2>General</h2>

<p>For PHP files the closing tag ("<code>?></code>") is to be omitted. It is not required by PHP, and omitting it prevents trailing whitespace from being accidentally injected into the output.</p>

<ac:macro ac:name="note"><ac:parameter ac:name="title">Important</ac:parameter><ac:rich-text-body>
<p>Inclusion of arbitrary binary data as permitted by <code>__HALT_COMPILER()</code> is prohibited from any Zend framework PHP file or files derived from them. Use of this feature is only permitted for special installation scripts.</p></ac:rich-text-body></ac:macro>

<p>Also using the closing tag to generate HTML output within a method is omitted. Instead use heredoc syntax if needed.</p>

<h2>Indentation</h2>

<p>Use an indent of 4 spaces with no tab characters. Editors should be configured to treat tabs as spaces in order to prevent injection of tab characters into the source code.</p>

<p>The code following a opening brace must be indented 4 additional spaces.</p>

<ac:macro ac:name="code"><ac:plain-text-body><![CDATA[
if ($x == 1) {
$indented_code = 1;
if ($new_line == 1)

Unknown macro: { $more_indented_code = 1; }

}
]]></ac:plain-text-body></ac:macro>

<p>Multiple assignments must have the same indentation.</p>

<ac:macro ac:name="code"><ac:plain-text-body><![CDATA[
$variable1 = "demo";
$var2 = "demo";
]]></ac:plain-text-body></ac:macro>

<h2>Maximum Line Length</h2>

<p>The target line length is 80 characters; i.e., developers should aim keep code as close to the 80-column boundary as is practical. However, longer lines are acceptable. The maximum length of any line of PHP code is 120 characters.</p>

<h2>Line Termination</h2>

<p>Line termination is the standard way for Unix text files. Lines must end only with a linefeed (LF). Linefeeds are represented as ordinal 10, or hexadecimal 0x0A.</p>

<p>Do not use carriage returns (CR) like Macintosh computers (0x0D).</p>

<p>Do not use the carriage return/linefeed combination (CRLF) as Windows computers (0x0D, 0x0A).</p>

<p>Lines should not contain trailing spaces. In order to facilitate this convention, most editors can be configured to strip trailing spaces, such as upon a save operation.</p>

<h1>Naming Conventions</h1>

<h2>Abstractions Used in API (Class Interfaces)</h2>

<p>When creating an API for use by application developers (as opposed to Zend Framework internal developers), if application developers must identify abstractions using a compound name, separate the names using underscores, not camelCase. For example, the name used for the MySQL PDO driver is 'pdo_mysql', not 'pdoMysql'. When the developer uses a string, normalize it to lowercase. Where reasonable, add constants to support this (e.g. PDO_MYSQL).</p>

<h2>Classes</h2>

<p>The Zend Framework employs a class naming convention whereby the names of the classes directly map to the directories in which they are stored. The root level directory of the Zend Framework is the "<code>Zend/</code>" directory, under which all classes are stored hierarchically.</p>

<p>Class names may only contain alphanumeric characters. Numbers are permitted in class names but are discouraged. Underscores are only permitted in place of the path separator. For example, the filename "<code>Zend/Db/Table.php</code>" must map to the class name "<code>Zend_Db_Table</code>".</p>

<p>If a class name is comprised of more than one word, the first letter of each new word must be capitalized. Successive capitalized letters are not allowed; e.g., a class "<code>Zend_PDF</code>" is not allowed, while "<code>Zend_Pdf</code>" is acceptable.</p>

<p>Zend Framework classes that are authored by Zend or one of the participating partner companies and distributed with the Framework must always start with "<code>Zend_</code>" and must be stored under the "<code>Zend/</code>" directory hierarchy accordingly.</p>

<p>These are examples of acceptable names for classes:</p>

<ac:macro ac:name="code"><ac:plain-text-body><![CDATA[
Zend_Db

Zend_View

Zend_View_Helper
]]></ac:plain-text-body></ac:macro>

<ac:macro ac:name="note"><ac:parameter ac:name="title">Important</ac:parameter><ac:rich-text-body>
<p>Code that operates with the framework but is not part of the framework, such as code written by a framework end-user and not Zend or one of the framework's partner companies, must never start with "<code>Zend_</code>".</p></ac:rich-text-body></ac:macro>

<h2>Interfaces</h2>

<p>Interface classes must follow the same conventions as other classes (see above), but must end with "<code>_Interface</code>", such as in these examples:</p>

<ac:macro ac:name="code"><ac:plain-text-body><![CDATA[
Zend_Log_Adapter_Interface

Zend_Controller_Dispatcher_Interface
]]></ac:plain-text-body></ac:macro>

<h2>Filenames</h2>

<p>For all other files, only alphanumeric characters, underscores, and the dash character ("<code>-</code>") are permitted. Spaces are prohibited.</p>

<p>Any file that contains any PHP code must end with the extension "<code>.php</code>". These examples show the acceptable filenames for containing the class names from the examples in the section above:</p>

<ac:macro ac:name="code"><ac:plain-text-body><![CDATA[
Zend/Db.php

Zend/Controller/Front.php

Zend/View/Helper/FormRadio.php
]]></ac:plain-text-body></ac:macro>

<p>File names must follow the mapping to class names described above.</p>

<h2>Functions and Methods</h2>

<p>Function names may only contain alphanumeric characters. Underscores are not permitted. Numbers are not allowed in function names.</p>

<p>Function names must always start with a lowercase letter. When a function name consists of more than one word, the first letter of each new word must be capitalized. This is commonly called the "camelCaps" method.</p>

<p>Verbosity is encouraged. Function names should be as illustrative as is practical to enhance understanding.</p>

<p>These are examples of acceptable names for functions:</p>

<ac:macro ac:name="code"><ac:plain-text-body><![CDATA[
filterInput()

getElementById()

widgetFactory()
]]></ac:plain-text-body></ac:macro>

<p>For object-oriented programming, accessors for object members should always be prefixed with either "<code>get</code>" or "<code>set</code>". When using design patterns, such as the Singleton or Factory patterns, the name of the method should contain the pattern name where practical to make the pattern more readily recognizable.</p>

<p>Though function names may not contain the underscore character, class methods that are declared as <code>protected</code> or <code>private</code> must begin with a single underscore, as in the following example:</p>

<ac:macro ac:name="code"><ac:plain-text-body><![CDATA[
class Zend_Foo
{
protected function _fooBar()

Unknown macro: { // ... }

}
]]></ac:plain-text-body></ac:macro>

<p>Functions in the global scope, or "floating functions," are permitted but heavily discouraged. It is recommended that these functions be wrapped in a class and declared static.</p>

<p>Functions or variables declared with a "static" scope in a class generally should not be "private", but protected instead. Use "final" if the function should not be extended.</p>

<p>The opening brace of functions and methods has to be in the next line.</p>

<ac:macro ac:name="code"><ac:plain-text-body><![CDATA[
function Myfunction($parameter1)
{
}
]]></ac:plain-text-body></ac:macro>

<h3>Optional Parameters</h3>

<p>Use "null" as the default value instead of "false", for situations like this:</p>

<p>public function foo($required, $optional = null)</p>

<p><strong>when</strong> $optional does not have or need a particular default value.</p>

<p>However, if an optional parameter is boolean, and its logical default value should be true, or false, then using true or false is acceptable.</p>

<h2>Variables</h2>

<p>Variable names may only contain alphanumeric characters. Underscores or numbers are not permitted.</p>

<p>For class member variables that are declared with the <code>private</code> or <code>protected</code> construct, the first character of the variable name must be a single underscore. This is the only acceptable usage of an underscore in a variable name. Member variables declared as "public" may never start with an underscore. For example:</p>

<ac:macro ac:name="code"><ac:plain-text-body><![CDATA[
class Zend_Foo
{
protected $_bar;
}
]]></ac:plain-text-body></ac:macro>

<p>Like function names, variable names must always start with a lowercase letter and follow the "camelCaps" capitalization convention.</p>

<p>Verbosity is encouraged. Variable names should always be as verbose as practical. Terse variable names such as "<code>$i</code>" and "<code>$n</code>" are discouraged for anything other than the smallest loop contexts. If a loop contains more than 20 lines of code, variables for such indices or counters need to have more descriptive names.</p>

<h2>Constants</h2>

<p>Constants may contain both alphanumeric characters and the underscore. Numbers are permitted in constant names.</p>

<p>Constant names must always have all letters capitalized.</p>

<p>To enhance readability, words in constant names must be separated by underscore characters. For example, "<code>EMBED_SUPPRESS_EMBED_EXCEPTION</code>" is permitted but "<code>EMBED_SUPPRESSEMBEDEXCEPTION</code>" is not.</p>

<p>Constants must be defined as class members by using the "const" construct. Defining constants in the global scope with "define" is permitted but heavily discouraged.</p>

<h2>Booleans and the NULL Value</h2>

<p>Unlike PHP's documentation, the Zend Framework uses lowercase for both boolean values and the "<code>null</code>" value.</p>

<h1>Coding style</h1>

<h2>PHP Code Demarcation</h2>

<p>PHP code must always be delimited by the full-form, standard PHP tags (although you should see the note about <ac:link ac:anchor="General"><ac:link-body>the closing PHP tag</ac:link-body></ac:link>):</p>

<ac:macro ac:name="code"><ac:plain-text-body><![CDATA[
<?php

?>
]]></ac:plain-text-body></ac:macro>

<p>Short tags are only allowed within view scripts.</p>

<h2>Strings</h2>

<h3>String Literals</h3>

<p>When a string is literal (contains no variable substitutions), the apostrophe or "single quote" must always used to demarcate the string:</p>

<ac:macro ac:name="code"><ac:plain-text-body><![CDATA[
$a = 'Example String';
]]></ac:plain-text-body></ac:macro>

<h3>String Literals Containing Apostrophes</h3>

<p>When a literal string itself contains apostrophes, it is permitted to demarcate the string with quotation marks or "double quotes". This is especially encouraged for SQL statements:</p>

<ac:macro ac:name="code"><ac:plain-text-body><![CDATA[
$sql = "SELECT `id`, `name` from `people` WHERE `name`='Fred' OR `name`='Susan'";
]]></ac:plain-text-body></ac:macro>

<p>The above syntax is preferred over escaping apostrophes.</p>

<h3>Variable Substitution</h3>

<p>Variable substitution is permitted using either of these two forms:</p>

<ac:macro ac:name="code"><ac:plain-text-body><![CDATA[
$greeting = "Hello $name, welcome back!";

$greeting = "Hello {$name}, welcome back!";
]]></ac:plain-text-body></ac:macro>

<p>For consistency, this form is not permitted:</p>

<ac:macro ac:name="code"><ac:plain-text-body><![CDATA[
$greeting = "Hello $

Unknown macro: {name}

, welcome back!";
]]></ac:plain-text-body></ac:macro>

<h3>String Concatenation</h3>

<p>Strings may be concatenated using the "<code>.</code>" operator. A space must always be added before and after the "<code>.</code>" operator to improve readability:</p>

<ac:macro ac:name="code"><ac:plain-text-body><![CDATA[
$company = 'Zend' . 'Technologies';
]]></ac:plain-text-body></ac:macro>

<p>When concatenating strings with the "<code>.</code>" operator, it is permitted to break the statement into multiple lines to improve readability. In these cases, each successive line should be padded with whitespace such that the "<code>.</code>" operator is aligned under the "<code>=</code>" operator:</p>

<ac:macro ac:name="code"><ac:plain-text-body><![CDATA[
$sql = "SELECT `id`, `name` FROM `people` "
. "WHERE `name` = 'Susan' "
. "ORDER BY `name` ASC ";
]]></ac:plain-text-body></ac:macro>

<h2>Arrays</h2>

<h3>Numerically Indexed Arrays</h3>

<p>Negative numbers are not permitted as array indices.</p>

<p>An indexed array may be started with any non-negative number, however this is discouraged and it is recommended that all arrays have a base index of <code>0</code>.</p>

<p>When declaring indexed arrays with the <code>array</code> construct, a trailing space must be added after each comma delimiter to improve readability:</p>

<ac:macro ac:name="code"><ac:plain-text-body><![CDATA[
$sampleArray = array(1, 2, 3, 'Zend', 'Studio');
]]></ac:plain-text-body></ac:macro>

<p>It is also permitted to declare multi-line indexed arrays using the <code>array</code> construct. In this case, each successive line must be padded with spaces such that beginning of each line and each value aligns as shown below:</p>

<ac:macro ac:name="code"><ac:plain-text-body><![CDATA[
$sampleArray = array(1, 2, 3, 'Zend',
'Studio', $a, $b, $c,
56.44, $d, 500);
]]></ac:plain-text-body></ac:macro>

<h3>Associative Arrays</h3>

<p>When declaring associative arrays with the <code>array</code> construct, it is encouraged to break the statement into multiple lines. In this case, each successive line must be padded with whitespace such that both the keys and the values are aligned:</p>

<ac:macro ac:name="code"><ac:plain-text-body><![CDATA[
$sampleArray = array('firstKey' => 'firstValue',
'secondKey' => 'secondValue');
]]></ac:plain-text-body></ac:macro>

<h2>Classes</h2>

<h3>Class Declarations</h3>

<p>Classes must be named by following the naming conventions.</p>

<p>The brace is always written on the line underneath the class name ("one true brace" form).</p>

<p>Every class must have a documentation block that conforms to the phpDocumentor standard.</p>

<p>Any code within a class must be indented the standard indent of four spaces.</p>

<p>Only one class is permitted per PHP file.</p>

<p>Placing additional code in a class file is permitted but heavily discouraged. In these files, a blank line must separate the class from any additional PHP code in the file.</p>

<p>This is an example of an acceptable class declaration:</p>

<ac:macro ac:name="code"><ac:plain-text-body><![CDATA[
/**

  • Class Docblock Here
    */
    class Zend_Class
    {
    // entire content of class
    // must be indented four spaces
    }
    ]]></ac:plain-text-body></ac:macro>

<h3>Class Member Variables</h3>

<p>Member variables must be named by following the variable naming conventions.</p>

<p>Any variables declared in a class must be listed at the top of the class, prior to declaring any functions.</p>

<p>The <code>var</code> construct is not permitted. Member variables always declare their visibility by using one of the <code>private</code>, <code>protected</code>, or <code>public</code> constructs. Accessing member variables directly by making them public is permitted but discouraged in favor of accessor methods having the <code>set</code> and <code>get</code> prefixes.</p>

<h2>Functions and Methods</h2>

<h3>Function and Method Declaration</h3>

<p>Functions and class methods must be named by following the naming conventions.</p>

<p>Methods must always declare their visibility by using one of the <code>private</code>, <code>protected</code>, or <code>public</code> constructs.</p>

<p>Following the more common usage in the PHP developer community, static methods should declare their visibility first:</p>
<ac:macro ac:name="code"><ac:plain-text-body><![CDATA[
public static foo()

Unknown macro: { ... }


private static bar()

protected static goo()

Unknown macro: { ... }

]]></ac:plain-text-body></ac:macro>

<p>As for classes, the opening brace for a function or method is always written on the line underneath the function or method name ("one true brace" form). There is no space between the function or method name and the opening parenthesis for the arguments.</p>

<p>This is an example of acceptable class method declarations:</p>

<ac:macro ac:name="code"><ac:plain-text-body><![CDATA[
/**

  • Class Docblock Here
    */
    class Zend_Foo
    {
    /**
  • Method Docblock Here
    */
    public function sampleMethod($a)
    Unknown macro: { // entire content of function // must be indented four spaces }

/**

  • Method Docblock Here
    */
    protected function _anotherMethod()

}
]]></ac:plain-text-body></ac:macro>

<ac:macro ac:name="info"><ac:parameter ac:name="title">Please note</ac:parameter><ac:rich-text-body>
<p>Passing function or method arguments by reference is only permitted by defining the reference in the function or method declaration, as in the following example:</p>

<ac:macro ac:name="code"><ac:plain-text-body><![CDATA[
function sampleMethod(&$a)
{}
]]></ac:plain-text-body></ac:macro>

<p>Call-time pass by-reference is prohibited.</p></ac:rich-text-body></ac:macro>

<p>The return value must not be enclosed in parentheses. This can hinder readability and can also break code if a function or method is later changed to return by reference.</p>

<ac:macro ac:name="code"><ac:plain-text-body><![CDATA[
function foo()
{
// WRONG
return($this->bar);

// RIGHT
return $this->bar;
}
]]></ac:plain-text-body></ac:macro>

<p>The use of <a href="http://php.net/manual/en/language.oop5.typehinting.php">type hinting</a> is encouraged where possible with respect to the component design. For example,</p>

<ac:macro ac:name="code"><ac:plain-text-body><![CDATA[
class Zend_Component
{
public function foo(SomeInterface $object)
{}

public function bar(array $options)
{}
}
]]></ac:plain-text-body></ac:macro>

<p>Where possible, try to keep your use of exceptions vs. type hinting consistent, and not mix both approaches at the same time in the same method for validating argument types. However, before PHP 5.2, "Failing to satisfy the type hint results in a fatal error," and might fail to satisfy other coding standards involving the use of throwing exceptions. Beginning with PHP 5.2, failing to satisfy the type hint results in an E_RECOVERABLE_ERROR, requiring developers to deal with these from within a custom error handler, instead of using a try..catch block.</p>

<h3>Function and Method Usage</h3>

<p>Function arguments are separated by a single trailing space after the comma delimiter. This is an example of an acceptable function call for a function that takes three arguments:</p>

<ac:macro ac:name="code"><ac:plain-text-body><![CDATA[
threeArguments(1, 2, 3);
]]></ac:plain-text-body></ac:macro>

<p>Call-time pass by-reference is prohibited. Arguments to be passed by reference must be defined in the function declaration.</p>

<p>For functions whose arguments permit arrays, the function call may include the "array" construct and can be split into multiple lines to improve readability. In these cases, the standards for writing arrays still apply:</p>

<ac:macro ac:name="code"><ac:plain-text-body><![CDATA[
threeArguments(array(1, 2, 3), 2, 3);

threeArguments(array(1, 2, 3, 'Zend',
'Studio', $a, $b, $c,
56.44, $d, 500), 2, 3);
]]></ac:plain-text-body></ac:macro>

<h2>Control Statements</h2>

<h3>If / Else / Elseif</h3>

<p>Control statements based on the "<code>if</code>", "<code>else</code>", and "<code>elseif</code>" constructs must have a single space before the opening parenthesis of the conditional, and a single space between the closing parenthesis and opening brace.</p>

<p>Within the conditional statements between the parentheses, operators must be separated by spaces for readability. Inner parentheses are encouraged to improve logical grouping of larger conditionals.</p>

<p>The opening brace is written on the same line as the conditional statement. The closing brace is always written on its own line. Any content within the braces must be indented four spaces.</p>

<ac:macro ac:name="code"><ac:plain-text-body><![CDATA[
if ($a != 2) {
$a = 2;
}
]]></ac:plain-text-body></ac:macro>

<p>For "<code>if</code>" statements that include "<code>elseif</code>" or "<code>else</code>", the formatting must be as in these examples:</p>

<ac:macro ac:name="code"><ac:plain-text-body><![CDATA[
if ($a != 2) {
$a = 2;
} else {
$a = 7;
}

if ($a != 2) {
$a = 2;
} else if ($a == 3) {
$a = 4;
} else {
$a = 7;
}
]]></ac:plain-text-body></ac:macro>

<p>PHP allows for these statements to be written without braces in some circumstances. The coding standard makes no differentiation and all "<code>if</code>", "<code>elseif</code>", or "<code>else</code>" statements must use braces.</p>

<p>Use of the "<code>elseif</code>" construct is not allowed in favor of the "<code>else if</code>" combination.</p>

<h3>Switch</h3>

<p>Control statements written with the "<code>switch</code>" construct must have a single space before the opening parenthesis of the conditional statement, and also a single space between the closing parenthesis and the opening brace.</p>

<p>All content within the "<code>switch</code>" statement must be indented four spaces. Content under each "<code>case</code>" statement must be indented an additional four spaces.</p>

<ac:macro ac:name="code"><ac:plain-text-body><![CDATA[
switch ($numPeople)

Unknown macro: { case 1}

class Zend_Component_Exception extends Zend_Exception
{}

class Zend_Component_SpecificException extends Zend_Component_Exception
{}
]]></ac:plain-text-body></ac:macro>

<p>It is considered best practice within framework component code that exceptions are instantiated through the traditional <code>new</code> constructor method.</p>

<ac:macro ac:name="code"><ac:plain-text-body><![CDATA[
require_once 'Zend_Component_SpecificException.php';

class Zend_Component
{
public function foo($condition)
{
if ($condition)

Unknown macro: { throw new Zend_Component_SpecificException( 'Some meaningful exception message'); }

}
}
]]></ac:plain-text-body></ac:macro>

<p>Exceptions must be lazy loaded before they are thrown:</p>
<ac:macro ac:name="code"><ac:plain-text-body><![CDATA[
if ($condition) {
require_once 'Zend_Component_SpecificException.php';
throw new Zend_Component_SpecificException(
'Some meaningful exception message');
}
]]></ac:plain-text-body></ac:macro>

<p>Reasonable care should be taken to avoid throwing exceptions except when genuinely appropriate. In general, if a Zend Framework component is asked to perform a duty that it cannot perform in a certain situation (e.g., illegal input, cannot read requested file), then throwing an exception is a sensible course of action. Conversely, if a component is able to perform its requested duty, despite some variance from expected input, then the component should continue with its work, rather than throw an exception.</p>

<h2>Exception best practices</h2>

<ul>
<li>Use specific derived exceptions in both <code>throw</code> and <code>catch</code>. See the following two items:</li>
</ul>

<ul>
<li>Avoid throwing the <code>Exception</code> base class, or other exception superclass. The more specific the exception, the better it communicates to the user what happened.</li>
</ul>

<ul>
<li>Avoid catching the <code>Exception</code> base class, or other exception superclass. If a <code>try</code> block might encounter more than one type of exception, write a separate <code>catch</code> block for each specific exception, not one <code>catch</code> block for an exception superclass.</li>
</ul>

<ul>
<li>Some classes may require you to write more than one derived exception class. Write as many exception classes as needed, to distinguish between different types of situations. For example, "<em>invalid argument value</em>" is different from, "<em>you don't have a needed privilege</em>." Create different exceptions to identify different cases.</li>
</ul>

<ul>
<li>Don't put important diagnostic information only in the text of the exception method. Create methods and members in derived exception classes as needed, to provide information to the <code>catch</code> block. Create an exception constructor method that takes appropriate arguments, and populate the members of the class with those arguments.</li>
</ul>

<ul>
<li>Don't silently suppress exceptions and allow execution to continue in an erroneous state. If you catch an exception, either correct the condition or throw a new exception.</li>
</ul>

<ul>
<li>Keep implementation-specific exceptions isolated to the appropriate layer of your application. For instance, don't propagate <code>SQLException</code> out of the data layer code and into business layer code.</li>
</ul>

<ul>
<li>Don't use exceptions as a mechanism of flow control, or to return valid return values from a function.</li>
</ul>

<ul>
<li>Clean up resources such as database connections or network connections. PHP does not support a <code>finally</code> block as some programming languages do, so either clean up in the <code>catch</code> blocks, or else design flow control outside the <code>catch</code> block to perform cleanup, and let execution continue after the <code>catch</code>.</li>
</ul>

<ul>
<li>Use documentation from other languages for other best practices regarding using exceptions. Many of the principles are applicable, regardless of the language.</li>
</ul>

<h1>CodeSniffer Testbed</h1>

<p>The complete framework is tested with a coding standard which we have written using PHP_CodeSniffer. Several existing tests have been reused and others have been rewritten to allow automatic testing of the above written coding standard.<br />
In some points the CodeSniffer tests are more restrictive than the written standard to make the code more readable and consistent.</p>
</ac:rich-text-body></ac:macro>

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  1. Nov 29, 2007

    <p>pardon me, but what operators coding standarts do you use? <br />
    we didn't find any information and in Zend FW codes there are now single style. <br />
    For you corporate we agreed to use folowing: </p>

    <p>B.4.8 Operators<br />
    All monadic(unary) operations (like "!") must be close to their operand, and all binary (like "&&") operations must be separated from both of operands by single space. </p>

    <p>if (!$b)<br />
    if ($a && $b)<br />
    if ($a && !$b)</p>

    <p>But actualy Zend team is our leader and if you will discribe in your Codind Standards somthing like that we will be happy <ac:emoticon ac:name="wink" /></p>

  2. Mar 24, 2008

    <p>Controller and such things use other directory and file conventions. Should they be mentioned?<br />
    Should option keys be mentioned ('doSomething' or 'do_something')?</p>

    <p>@functions and methods (using pattern): Seems more useful do define pattern instead of "method should contain name of pattern", because especially Singleton do not use a method "singleton", but "getInstance".</p>

    <p>I dont know, what Im expecting, but Id like to see more conventions for the docblock <ac:emoticon ac:name="smile" /> It seems to me, that there are many files with broken docblocks</p>

    1. Mar 25, 2008

      <p>I'm not finished with defining the API doc standard.<br />
      Please be patient until I start the discussion in the generic mailinglist.</p>

      <p>And yes, you are right... actually the API doc is more or less completly ignored and follows no standard. This is what I want to change. <ac:emoticon ac:name="wink" /></p>

  3. Mar 31, 2008

    <p>Three things:</p>

    <p>1) Doesn't the docblock parser already known, which parameters are optional? It's already in the function definition and the less we duplicate the less the docblock can be out of date</p>

    <p>2) There is no such thing as void in PHP. The default return value/type of a function is null.</p>

    <p>3) Do we have a list of docblock errors? It's easier for me to adapt if I see what I did wrong. The SVN diffs can help, but a separate page/log, maybe generate each day or week, would IMO be easier to check.</p>

    1. Mar 31, 2008

      <p>1) I'm not sure if all parsers know these, or show that they are optional... but from point of usability it's always good to have it also visible in the comment.</p>

      <p>2) But when the function does not return at all it's even not null <ac:emoticon ac:name="smile" /> We can handle this as we want... but I think it should always be a @return defined even if nothing/null is returned because of usability.</p>

      <p>3) Actually no... I found no checking tool which fit's out need, and my docblock checker is more a internal tool I am writing and extending with each error/problem I find. I hope to get it finished soon... and then I could provide the results somewhere, but for now it's private code.</p>

  4. Apr 03, 2008

    <p>I added a new issue
    <a class="external-link" href="http://framework.zend.com/issues/browse/ZF-3027">http://framework.zend.com/issues/browse/ZF-3027</a><br />
    where the actual result of coding standard check for core and incubator can be found.</p>

    <p>The amount of tests can be found within this page as described within the appendix.</p>

    1. Apr 25, 2008

      <p>Hi, I am the lead developer of the PHP_CodeSniffer PEAR package. The Zend sniffs in the ZF incubator have been brought to my attention because the package name (Zend) conflicts with the existing Zend Framework package name distributed with PHP_CodeSniffer.</p>

      <p>Just a couple of comments (I couldn't find an email address to send these to, and I can't comment on ZF issues):<br />
      Most of the sniffs you have in SVN are sniffs written by myself, but you've modified the class and file comments to remove the copyright notice, change the licence and change the author. This is in violation of the BSD licence under which PHP_CodeSniffer is distributed. Please either modify these files in SVN or remove them.</p>

      <p>Secondly, I'd be more than happy to work with you to get the remaining sniffs incorporated into the core PHP_CodeSniffer Zend package. There is no need to have these sniffs duplicated in two locations, especially considering that PHP_CodeSniffer allows standards to use sniffs from existing standards without code duplication. Also, the existing Zend standard implements a lot of the ZF coding standard already, so building upon the existing code would be better.</p>

      <p>If you would like to discuss these comments, please contact me at gsherwood at squiz dot net.</p>

      1. May 03, 2008

        <p>OK, I've grepped throughout all of trunk and I can't find any of these files in Subversion. I assume they've been removed?</p>

        <p>I only ask because we were actually looking the other day for something like this in order to check our own code (which conforms to the Zend standard). The support in PHP_CodeSniffer is rather incomplete and I was hoping I could find some more tests.</p>

        <blockquote>
        <p>The Zend sniffs in the ZF incubator have been brought to my attention because the package name (Zend) conflicts with the existing Zend Framework package name distributed with PHP_CodeSniffer.</p></blockquote>

        <p>That's an odd way to put it. Your namespace scheme is strange to begin with, in that you have no claim to several of the namespaces you use (Zend, for example). Wouldn't a more logical structure be something like:</p>

        <ac:macro ac:name="code"><ac:plain-text-body><![CDATA[
        PHP/
        CodeSniffer/
        Sniff/
        SomeSniff.php
        SomeOtherSniff.php
        Standards/
        Zend.php
        Pear.php
        ]]></ac:plain-text-body></ac:macro>

        <p>Where standards aggregate various sniffs? Well, anyway.</p>

        1. May 03, 2008

          <p>Yes, they were removed. Thanks to Thomas for that.</p>

          <p>As for the namespaces, they are like that because the sniffs inside can be incredibly specific, so they are grouped into various folders. Also, standards don't have to include any sniffs; they can just include a single class which imports sniffs from other standards, which is similar to what you have in your example structure. If you read the docs and look at the standards that are included, you can see how that works.</p>

          <p>As for not having any claim to "several namespaces"; I include the standards "Generic" (um, generic), "PEAR" (this is a PEAR package and I am a registered PEAR developer), "PHPCS" (PHP_CodeSniffer), "Squiz" (I work for Squiz), "MySource" (the product I build for Squiz) and "Zend" (contributed originally by a developer from Zend along with integration for the Zend Code Analyzer). I think I'm fairly safe <ac:emoticon ac:name="smile" /></p>

          <p>But this page is not a discussion about PHP_CodeSniffer. If you want to know more, have any suggestions, please contact me directly.</p>

  5. Aug 08, 2008

    <p>I've just posted this on Greg's blog (<a class="external-link" href="http://gregsherwood.blogspot.com/2008/04/phpcodesniffer-code-taken-and-rebadged.html">http://gregsherwood.blogspot.com/2008/04/phpcodesniffer-code-taken-and-rebadged.html</a>) but I guess it's better place for this question:<br />
    "Hi Greg!</p>

    <p>After running:<br />
    `phpcs --report=summary --standard=Zend trunk/lib/Zend/`<br />
    I get:<br />
    A TOTAL OF 4063 ERROR(S) AND 13282 WARNING(S) WERE FOUND IN 1168 FILE(S)</p>

    <p>On the other side on ZF wiki (<a class="external-link" href="http://framework.zend.com/wiki/display/ZFDEV/ZF+Coding+Standards+(RC)#ZFCodingStandards(RC)-CodeSnifferTestbed">http://framework.zend.com/wiki/display/ZFDEV/ZF+Coding+Standards+(RC)#ZFCodingStandards(RC)-CodeSnifferTestbed</a>) it's written that "The complete framework is tested with a coding standard which we have written using PHP_CodeSniffer".</p>

    <p>Something weird is going on, do you have some thought to share, why there are thousands of errors?</p>

    <p>PS.<br />
    Software versions I have used:<br />
    PHP_CodeSniffer version 1.1.0 (stable)<br />
    Zenf Framework 1.6.0"</p>

    1. Aug 08, 2008

      <p>What should be going on ?<br />
      This is a RC. RELEASE CANDIDATE. This means that it is in discussion with the dev-team and not an approved standard. :o</p>

      <p>The core will not be changed until the new Coding Standard has conformed and was accepted. This is the reason why there are so much Errors/Warnings. Actually each developer goes his own way. That's why I began creating the testbed. But I can not finish it until the standard has been conformed.</p>

      <p>Also the testbed in phpcs is not the official ZF testbed. But you should have mentioned this reading through the comments added here. <ac:emoticon ac:name="wink" /></p>

    2. Aug 08, 2008

      <p>And my reply was:</p>

      <p>I'm not sure exactly what standard the ZF guys are using or how much their code actually conforms to the standard.</p>

      <p>When the Zend standard was added to PHP_CodeSniffer, it was current at the time, but never really became an official ZF standard.</p>

      <p>I think you'll need to ask them as I have not heard anything for a while. I'd love them to contribute whatever they have though. I think that would give PHP developers a real alternative to the PEAR standard.</p>

      <hr />

      <p>If you guys do want to get the ZF standard out into the PHP community, I'm more than happy to include it in the PEAR release and get you access to maintain it.</p>

  6. Aug 13, 2008

    <p>Matthew has been working on a ZF Code sniffer implementation of the ZF coding standards in <br />
    svn (standard\incubator\tools\codingstandard) perhaps that one is nice point to start of with</p>

    1. Aug 13, 2008

      <p>How do you come to the idea that this is Matthews work ?<br />
      I have spent much more than 50 hours for this code. It's definitly mine. <ac:emoticon ac:name="smile" /></p>

      <p>And you should also have mentioned that this document is a RC and not official.<br />
      This is the reason why my testbed (standard\incubator\tools\codingstandard) is until now in the incubator and not released. Several things have to be cleared and the testbed has to be changed to reflect this. This document and the testbed will change.</p>

      <p>So don't rely on this for now.</p>

      <p>Greetings<br />
      Thomas, I18N Team Leader, Zend Framework</p>

      1. Aug 14, 2009

        <p>Hi Thomas,</p>

        <p>What is the current status of the code sniffer implementation of the ZF coding standards? We have incorporated Code Sniffer into our build process and would like to enforce ZF standards. I noticed that Code Sniffer ships with a Zend standard, but I wasn't confident that this was the correct PHPCS to use.</p>

        <p>Regards,<br />
        Stewart</p>

        1. Aug 14, 2009

          <p>My code sniffer implementation was not finished but it has also not been accepted by Zend. Several rules did not conform, were not checked, or were too strict. I had to delete it from Incubator. You can find the latest version by looking into SVN (<r13605).</p>

          <p>The CS files delivered with PHPCS do not conform any ZF standard.</p>

          <p>I was said that Zend will not integrate a own CS testbed as it will use the new Pear2 standard as soon as it's available. This is the reason why I did not do any additional work since last year.</p>

          <p>So the actual state is that there is no official CS testbed available.</p>

          1. Apr 21, 2010

            <p>As I note here: <a href="http://wiki.pear.php.net/index.php/PEAR2_Standards" title="PEAR2 Standards">http://wiki.pear.php.net/index.php/PEAR2_Standards</a> PEAR2 Standards was last updated on October 6th, 2007, so I think in this year we will not have any official testbed again, yep?</p>

            <p>P. S.<br />
            Could I can do anything to speedup this process?</p>

  7. Aug 13, 2008

    <p>A major mea culpa is owed Thomas. i miss read the revision author list, you definitely did write all the code. Matthew only moved it in the svn redesign. </p>

  8. Feb 23, 2010

    <p>Hi Thomas</p>

    <p>I miss information about string access and modification by character:
    <a class="external-link" href="http://de3.php.net/manual/en/language.types.string.php#language.types.string.substr">http://de3.php.net/manual/en/language.types.string.php#language.types.string.substr</a></p>

    <p>Thats my recommendation:</p>
    <ac:macro ac:name="code"><ac:plain-text-body><![CDATA[
    $str = '123';
    $char = $str[0]; // valid
    $char = $str

    Unknown macro: {0}

    ; // deprecated as of PHP 5.3.0
    $char = substr($str, 0, 1); // valid but slow

    $lastChar = $str[ strlen($str)-1 ]; // valid
    $lastChar = substr($str, -1); // valid

    $str = '';
    $char = $str[0]; // invalid
    $char = substr($str, 0, 1); // invalid (If string is less than or equal to start characters long, FALSE will be returned.)
    ]]></ac:plain-text-body></ac:macro>