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Zend/Console/Getopt.php

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Zend_Console_Getopt is a class to parse options for command-line applications.

LICENSE

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Category
Zend  
Copyright
Copyright (c) 2005-2012 Zend Technologies USA Inc. (http://www.zend.com)  
License
New BSD License  
Package
Zend_Console_Getopt  
Version
$Id: Getopt.php 24594 2012-01-05 21:27:01Z matthew $  

\Zend_Console_Getopt

Package: Zend\Console\Getopt

Zend_Console_Getopt is a class to parse options for command-line applications.

Terminology: Argument: an element of the argv array. This may be part of an option, or it may be a non-option command-line argument. Flag: the letter or word set off by a '-' or '--'. Example: in '--output filename', '--output' is the flag. Parameter: the additional argument that is associated with the option. Example: in '--output filename', the 'filename' is the parameter. Option: the combination of a flag and its parameter, if any. Example: in '--output filename', the whole thing is the option.

The following features are supported:

  • Short flags like '-a'. Short flags are preceded by a single dash. Short flags may be clustered e.g. '-abc', which is the same as '-a' '-b' '-c'.
  • Long flags like '--verbose'. Long flags are preceded by a double dash. Long flags may not be clustered.
  • Options may have a parameter, e.g. '--output filename'.
  • Parameters for long flags may also be set off with an equals sign, e.g. '--output=filename'.
  • Parameters for long flags may be checked as string, word, or integer.
  • Automatic generation of a helpful usage message.
  • Signal end of options with '--'; subsequent arguments are treated as non-option arguments, even if they begin with '-'.
  • Raise exception Zend_Console_Getopt_Exception in several cases when invalid flags or parameters are given. Usage message is returned in the exception object.

The format for specifying options uses a PHP associative array. The key is has the format of a list of pipe-separated flag names, followed by an optional '=' to indicate a required parameter or '-' to indicate an optional parameter. Following that, the type of parameter may be specified as 's' for string, 'w' for word, or 'i' for integer.

Examples: - 'user|username|u=s' this means '--user' or '--username' or '-u' are synonyms, and the option requires a string parameter. - 'p=i' this means '-p' requires an integer parameter. No synonyms. - 'verbose|v-i' this means '--verbose' or '-v' are synonyms, and they take an optional integer parameter. - 'help|h' this means '--help' or '-h' are synonyms, and they take no parameter.

The values in the associative array are strings that are used as brief descriptions of the options when printing a usage message.

The simpler format for specifying options used by PHP's getopt() function is also supported. This is similar to GNU getopt and shell getopt format.

Example: 'abc:' means options '-a', '-b', and '-c' are legal, and the latter requires a string parameter.

Category
Zend  
Copyright
Copyright (c) 2005-2012 Zend Technologies USA Inc. (http://www.zend.com)  
License
New BSD License  
Since
Class available since Release 0.6.0  
Todo
Handle params with multiple values, e.g. --colors=red,green,blue Set value of parameter to the array of values. Allow user to specify the separator with Zend_Console_Getopt::CONFIG_PARAMETER_SEPARATOR. If this config value is null or empty string, do not split values into arrays. Default separator is comma (',').  
Todo
Handle params with multiple values specified with separate options e.g. --colors red --colors green --colors blue should give one option with an array(red, green, blue). Enable with Zend_Console_Getopt::CONFIG_CUMULATIVE_PARAMETERS. Default is that subsequent options overwrite the parameter value.  
Todo
Handle flags occurring multiple times, e.g. -v -v -v Set value of the option's parameter to the integer count of instances instead of a boolean. Enable with Zend_Console_Getopt::CONFIG_CUMULATIVE_FLAGS. Default is that the value is simply boolean true regardless of how many instances of the flag appear.  
Todo
Handle flags that implicitly print usage message, e.g. --help  
Todo
Handle freeform options, e.g. --set-variable Enable with Zend_Console_Getopt::CONFIG_FREEFORM_FLAGS All flag-like syntax is recognized, no flag generates an exception.  
Todo
Handle numeric options, e.g. -1, -2, -3, -1000 Enable with Zend_Console_Getopt::CONFIG_NUMERIC_FLAGS The rule must specify a named flag and the '#' symbol as the parameter type. e.g., 'lines=#'  
Todo
Enable user to specify header and footer content in the help message.  
Todo
Feature request to handle option interdependencies. e.g. if -b is specified, -a must be specified or else the usage is invalid.  
Todo
Feature request to implement callbacks. e.g. if -a is specified, run function 'handleOptionA'().  
Version
Release: @package_version@  

Constants

Constant  MODE_ZEND = 'zend'

The options for a given application can be in multiple formats.

modeGnu is for traditional 'ab:c:' style getopt format. modeZend is for a more structured format.

Constant  MODE_GNU = 'gnu'
Constant  PARAM_REQUIRED = '='

Constant tokens for various symbols used in the mode_zend rule format.

Constant  PARAM_OPTIONAL = '-'
Constant  TYPE_STRING = 's'
Constant  TYPE_WORD = 'w'
Constant  TYPE_INTEGER = 'i'
Constant  CONFIG_RULEMODE = 'ruleMode'

These are constants for optional behavior of this class.

ruleMode is either 'zend' or 'gnu' or a user-defined mode. dashDash is true if '--' signifies the end of command-line options. ignoreCase is true if '--opt' and '--OPT' are implicitly synonyms. parseAll is true if all options on the command line should be parsed, regardless of whether an argument appears before them.

Constant  CONFIG_DASHDASH = 'dashDash'
Constant  CONFIG_IGNORECASE = 'ignoreCase'
Constant  CONFIG_PARSEALL = 'parseAll'

Properties

Propertyprotectedarray  $_argv= 'array()'

Stores the command-line arguments for the calling applicaion.

Default valuearray()Details
Type
array
Propertyprotected  $_getoptConfig= 'array( self::CONFIG_RULEMODE => self::MODE_ZEND'

Defaults for getopt configuration are: ruleMode is 'zend' format, dashDash (--) token is enabled, ignoreCase is not enabled, parseAll is enabled.

Default valuearray( self::CONFIG_RULEMODE => self::MODE_ZENDDetails
Type
Propertyprotectedarray  $_options= 'array()'

Stores options given by the user in the current invocation of the application, as well as parameters given in options.

Default valuearray()Details
Type
array
Propertyprotectedboolean  $_parsed= 'false'

State of the options: parsed or not yet parsed?

Default valuefalseDetails
Type
boolean
Propertyprotectedstring  $_progname= ''''

Stores the name of the calling applicaion.

Default value''Details
Type
string
Propertyprotectedarray  $_remainingArgs= 'array()'

Stores the command-line arguments other than options.

Default valuearray()Details
Type
array
Propertyprotectedarray  $_ruleMap= 'array()'

Stores alternate spellings of legal options.

Default valuearray()Details
Type
array
Propertyprotectedarray  $_rules= 'array()'

Stores the list of legal options for this application.

Default valuearray()Details
Type
array

Methods

methodpublic__construct( array $rules, array $argv = null, array $getoptConfig = array() ) : void

The constructor takes one to three parameters.

The first parameter is $rules, which may be a string for gnu-style format, or a structured array for Zend-style format.

The second parameter is $argv, and it is optional. If not specified, $argv is inferred from the global argv.

The third parameter is an array of configuration parameters to control the behavior of this instance of Getopt; it is optional.

Parameters
Name Type Description
$rules array
$argv array
$getoptConfig array
methodpublic__get( string $key ) : string

Return the state of the option seen on the command line of the current application invocation. This function returns true, or the parameter to the option, if any. If the option was not given, this function returns null.

The magic __get method works in the context of naming the option as a virtual member of this class.

Parameters
Name Type Description
$key string
Returns
Type Description
string
methodpublic__isset( string $key ) : boolean

Test whether a given option has been seen.

Parameters
Name Type Description
$key string
Returns
Type Description
boolean
methodpublic__set( string $key, string $value ) : void

Set the value for a given option.

Parameters
Name Type Description
$key string
$value string
methodpublic__toString( ) : string

Return the current set of options and parameters seen as a string.

Returns
Type Description
string
methodpublic__unset( string $key ) : void

Unset an option.

Parameters
Name Type Description
$key string
methodprotected_addRulesModeGnu( string $rules ) : void

Define legal options using the gnu-style format.

Parameters
Name Type Description
$rules string
methodprotected_addRulesModeZend( array $rules ) : void

Define legal options using the Zend-style format.

Parameters
Name Type Description
$rules array
Throws
Exception Description
\Zend_Console_Getopt_Exception
methodprotected_checkParameterType( string $flag, string $param ) : bool

Return true if the parameter is in a valid format for the option $flag.

Throw an exception in most other cases.

Parameters
Name Type Description
$flag string
$param string
Returns
Type Description
bool
Throws
Exception Description
\Zend_Console_Getopt_Exception
methodprotected_parseLongOption( mixed $argv ) : void

Parse command-line arguments for a single long option.

A long option is preceded by a double '--' character. Long options may not be clustered.

Parameters
Name Type Description
$argv mixed

&$argv

methodprotected_parseShortOptionCluster( mixed $argv ) : void

Parse command-line arguments for short options.

Short options are those preceded by a single '-' character. Short options may be clustered.

Parameters
Name Type Description
$argv mixed

&$argv

methodprotected_parseSingleOption( string $flag, mixed $argv ) : void

Parse command-line arguments for a single option.

Parameters
Name Type Description
$flag string
$argv mixed
Throws
Exception Description
\Zend_Console_Getopt_Exception
methodpublicaddArguments( array $argv ) : \Zend_Console_Getopt

Define additional command-line arguments.

These are appended to those defined when the constructor was called.

Parameters
Name Type Description
$argv array
Returns
Type Description
\Zend_Console_Getopt Provides a fluent interface
Throws
Exception Description
\Zend_Console_Getopt_Exception When not given an array as parameter
methodpublicaddRules( array $rules ) : \Zend_Console_Getopt

Define additional option rules.

These are appended to the rules defined when the constructor was called.

Parameters
Name Type Description
$rules array
Returns
Type Description
\Zend_Console_Getopt Provides a fluent interface
methodpublicgetOption( string $flag ) : mixed

Return the state of the option seen on the command line of the current application invocation.

This function returns true, or the parameter value to the option, if any. If the option was not given, this function returns false.

Parameters
Name Type Description
$flag string
Returns
Type Description
mixed
methodpublicgetOptions( ) : array

Return a list of options that have been seen in the current argv.

Returns
Type Description
array
methodpublicgetRemainingArgs( ) : array

Return the arguments from the command-line following all options found.

Returns
Type Description
array
methodpublicgetUsageMessage( ) : string

Return a useful option reference, formatted for display in an error message.

Note that this usage information is provided in most Exceptions generated by this class.

Returns
Type Description
string
methodpublicparse( ) : \Zend_Console_Getopt|null

Parse command-line arguments and find both long and short options.

Also find option parameters, and remaining arguments after all options have been parsed.

Returns
Type Description
\Zend_Console_Getopt|null Provides a fluent interface
methodpublicsetAliases( array $aliasMap ) : \Zend_Console_Getopt

Define aliases for options.

The parameter $aliasMap is an associative array mapping option name (short or long) to an alias.

Parameters
Name Type Description
$aliasMap array
Returns
Type Description
\Zend_Console_Getopt Provides a fluent interface
Throws
Exception Description
\Zend_Console_Getopt_Exception
methodpublicsetArguments( array $argv ) : \Zend_Console_Getopt

Define full set of command-line arguments.

These replace any currently defined.

Parameters
Name Type Description
$argv array
Returns
Type Description
\Zend_Console_Getopt Provides a fluent interface
Throws
Exception Description
\Zend_Console_Getopt_Exception When not given an array as parameter
methodpublicsetHelp( array $helpMap ) : \Zend_Console_Getopt

Define help messages for options.

The parameter $help_map is an associative array mapping option name (short or long) to the help string.

Parameters
Name Type Description
$helpMap array
Returns
Type Description
\Zend_Console_Getopt Provides a fluent interface
methodpublicsetOption( string $configKey, string $configValue ) : \Zend_Console_Getopt

Define one configuration option as a key/value pair.

These are not program options, but properties to configure the behavior of Zend_Console_Getopt.

Parameters
Name Type Description
$configKey string
$configValue string
Returns
Type Description
\Zend_Console_Getopt Provides a fluent interface
methodpublicsetOptions( array $getoptConfig ) : \Zend_Console_Getopt

Define multiple configuration options from an associative array.

These are not program options, but properties to configure the behavior of Zend_Console_Getopt.

Parameters
Name Type Description
$getoptConfig array
Returns
Type Description
\Zend_Console_Getopt Provides a fluent interface
methodpublictoArray( ) : array

Return the current set of options and parameters seen as an array of canonical options and parameters.

Clusters have been expanded, and option aliases have been mapped to their primary option names.

Returns
Type Description
array
methodpublictoJson( ) : string

Return the current set of options and parameters seen in Json format.

Returns
Type Description
string
methodpublictoString( ) : string

Return the current set of options and parameters seen as a string.

Returns
Type Description
string
methodpublictoXml( ) : string

Return the current set of options and parameters seen in XML format.

Returns
Type Description
string
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