API Documentation

Zend/Db/Select.php

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Zend Framework

LICENSE

This source file is subject to the new BSD license that is bundled with this package in the file LICENSE.txt. It is also available through the world-wide-web at this URL: http://framework.zend.com/license/new-bsd If you did not receive a copy of the license and are unable to obtain it through the world-wide-web, please send an email to license@zend.com so we can send you a copy immediately.

Category
Zend  
Copyright
Copyright (c) 2005-2012 Zend Technologies USA Inc. (http://www.zend.com)  
License
New BSD License  
Package
Zend_Db  
Subpackage
Select  
Version
$Id: Select.php 24756 2012-05-05 02:49:48Z adamlundrigan $  

\Zend_Db_Select

Package: Zend\Db\Select

Class for SQL SELECT generation and results.

Children
\Zend_Db_Table_Select
Category
Zend  
Copyright
Copyright (c) 2005-2012 Zend Technologies USA Inc. (http://www.zend.com)  
License
New BSD License  

Constants

Constant  DISTINCT = 'distinct'
Constant  COLUMNS = 'columns'
Constant  FROM = 'from'
Constant  UNION = 'union'
Constant  WHERE = 'where'
Constant  GROUP = 'group'
Constant  HAVING = 'having'
Constant  ORDER = 'order'
Constant  LIMIT_COUNT = 'limitcount'
Constant  LIMIT_OFFSET = 'limitoffset'
Constant  FOR_UPDATE = 'forupdate'
Constant  INNER_JOIN = 'inner join'
Constant  LEFT_JOIN = 'left join'
Constant  RIGHT_JOIN = 'right join'
Constant  FULL_JOIN = 'full join'
Constant  CROSS_JOIN = 'cross join'
Constant  NATURAL_JOIN = 'natural join'
Constant  SQL_WILDCARD = '*'
Constant  SQL_SELECT = 'SELECT'
Constant  SQL_UNION = 'UNION'
Constant  SQL_UNION_ALL = 'UNION ALL'
Constant  SQL_FROM = 'FROM'
Constant  SQL_WHERE = 'WHERE'
Constant  SQL_DISTINCT = 'DISTINCT'
Constant  SQL_GROUP_BY = 'GROUP BY'
Constant  SQL_ORDER_BY = 'ORDER BY'
Constant  SQL_HAVING = 'HAVING'
Constant  SQL_FOR_UPDATE = 'FOR UPDATE'
Constant  SQL_AND = 'AND'
Constant  SQL_AS = 'AS'
Constant  SQL_OR = 'OR'
Constant  SQL_ON = 'ON'
Constant  SQL_ASC = 'ASC'
Constant  SQL_DESC = 'DESC'

Properties

Propertyprotected\Zend_Db_Adapter_Abstract  $_adapter= ''

Zend_Db_Adapter_Abstract object.

Propertyprotectedarray  $_bind= 'array()'

Bind variables for query

Default valuearray()Details
Type
array
Propertyprotectedarray  $_joinTypes= 'array( self::INNER_JOIN'
static

Specify legal join types.

Default valuearray( self::INNER_JOINDetails
Type
array
Propertyprotectedarray  $_parts= 'array()'

The component parts of a SELECT statement.

Initialized to the $_partsInit array in the constructor.

Default valuearray()Details
Type
array
Propertyprotectedarray  $_partsInit= 'array( self::DISTINCT => false'
static

The initial values for the $_parts array.

NOTE: It is important for the 'FOR_UPDATE' part to be last to ensure meximum compatibility with database adapters.

Default valuearray( self::DISTINCT => falseDetails
Type
array
Propertyprotectedarray  $_tableCols= 'array()'

Tracks which columns are being select from each table and join.

Default valuearray()Details
Type
array
Propertyprotectedarray  $_unionTypes= 'array( self::SQL_UNION'
static

Specify legal union types.

Default valuearray( self::SQL_UNIONDetails
Type
array

Methods

methodpublic__call( string $method, array $args ) : \Zend_Db_Select

Turn magic function calls into non-magic function calls for joinUsing syntax

Parameters
Name Type Description
$method string
$args array

OPTIONAL Zend_Db_Table_Select query modifier

Returns
Type Description
\Zend_Db_Select
Throws
Exception Description
\Zend_Db_Select_Exception If an invalid method is called.
methodpublic__construct( \Zend_Db_Adapter_Abstract $adapter ) : void

Class constructor

Parameters
Name Type Description
$adapter \Zend_Db_Adapter_Abstract
methodpublic__toString( ) : string

Implements magic method.

Returns
Type Description
string This object as a SELECT string.
methodprotected_getDummyTable( ) : array

Returns
Type Description
array
methodprotected_getQuotedSchema( string $schema = null ) : string|null

Return a quoted schema name

Parameters
Name Type Description
$schema string

The schema name OPTIONAL

Returns
Type Description
string|null
methodprotected_getQuotedTable( string $tableName, string $correlationName = null ) : string

Return a quoted table name

Parameters
Name Type Description
$tableName string

The table name

$correlationName string

The correlation name OPTIONAL

Returns
Type Description
string
methodprotected_join( null|string $type, array|string|\Zend_Db_Expr $name, string $cond, array|string $cols, string $schema = null ) : \Zend_Db_Select

Populate the {@link $_parts} 'join' key

Does the dirty work of populating the join key.

The $name and $cols parameters follow the same logic as described in the from() method.

Parameters
Name Type Description
$type null|string

Type of join; inner, left, and null are currently supported

$name array|string|\Zend_Db_Expr

Table name

$cond string

Join on this condition

$cols array|string

The columns to select from the joined table

$schema string

The database name to specify, if any.

Returns
Type Description
\Zend_Db_Select This Zend_Db_Select object
Throws
Exception Description
\Zend_Db_Select_Exception
methodpublic_joinUsing(  $type,  $name,  $cond,  $cols = '*',  $schema = null ) : \Zend_Db_Select

Handle JOIN... USING... syntax

This is functionality identical to the existing JOIN methods, however the join condition can be passed as a single column name. This method then completes the ON condition by using the same field for the FROM table and the JOIN table.

$select = $db->select()->from('table1')
                       ->joinUsing('table2', 'column1');

// SELECT * FROM table1 JOIN table2 ON table1.column1 = table2.column2

These joins are called by the developer simply by adding 'Using' to the method name. E.g. * joinUsing * joinInnerUsing * joinFullUsing * joinRightUsing * joinLeftUsing

Parameters
Name Type Description
$type
$name
$cond
$cols
$schema
Returns
Type Description
\Zend_Db_Select This Zend_Db_Select object.
methodprotected_renderColumns( string $sql ) : string|null

Render DISTINCT clause

Parameters
Name Type Description
$sql string

SQL query

Returns
Type Description
string|null
methodprotected_renderDistinct( string $sql ) : string

Render DISTINCT clause

Parameters
Name Type Description
$sql string

SQL query

Returns
Type Description
string
methodprotected_renderForupdate( string $sql ) : string

Render FOR UPDATE clause

Parameters
Name Type Description
$sql string

SQL query

Returns
Type Description
string
methodprotected_renderFrom( string $sql ) : string

Render FROM clause

Parameters
Name Type Description
$sql string

SQL query

Returns
Type Description
string
methodprotected_renderGroup( string $sql ) : string

Render GROUP clause

Parameters
Name Type Description
$sql string

SQL query

Returns
Type Description
string
methodprotected_renderHaving( string $sql ) : string

Render HAVING clause

Parameters
Name Type Description
$sql string

SQL query

Returns
Type Description
string
methodprotected_renderLimitoffset( string $sql ) : string

Render LIMIT OFFSET clause

Parameters
Name Type Description
$sql string

SQL query

Returns
Type Description
string
methodprotected_renderOrder( string $sql ) : string

Render ORDER clause

Parameters
Name Type Description
$sql string

SQL query

Returns
Type Description
string
methodprotected_renderUnion( string $sql ) : string

Render UNION query

Parameters
Name Type Description
$sql string

SQL query

Returns
Type Description
string
methodprotected_renderWhere( string $sql ) : string

Render WHERE clause

Parameters
Name Type Description
$sql string

SQL query

Returns
Type Description
string
methodprotected_tableCols(  $correlationName, array|string $cols, bool|string $afterCorrelationName = null ) : void

Adds to the internal table-to-column mapping array.

Parameters
Name Type Description
$correlationName
$cols array|string

The list of columns; preferably as an array, but possibly as a string containing one column.

$afterCorrelationName bool|string

True if it should be prepended, a correlation name if it should be inserted

methodprivate_uniqueCorrelation( string|array $name ) : string

Generate a unique correlation name

Parameters
Name Type Description
$name string|array

A qualified identifier.

Returns
Type Description
string A unique correlation name.
methodprotected_where( string $condition, mixed $value = null, string $type = null, boolean $bool = true ) : string

Internal function for creating the where clause

Parameters
Name Type Description
$condition string
$value mixed

optional

$type string

optional

$bool boolean

true = AND, false = OR

Returns
Type Description
string clause
methodpublicassemble( ) : string|null

Converts this object to an SQL SELECT string.

Returns
Type Description
string|null This object as a SELECT string. (or null if a string cannot be produced.)
methodpublicbind( mixed $bind ) : \Zend_Db_Select

Set bind variables

Parameters
Name Type Description
$bind mixed
Returns
Type Description
\Zend_Db_Select
methodpubliccolumns( array|string|\Zend_Db_Expr $cols = '*', string $correlationName = null ) : \Zend_Db_Select

Specifies the columns used in the FROM clause.

The parameter can be a single string or Zend_Db_Expr object, or else an array of strings or Zend_Db_Expr objects.

Parameters
Name Type Description
$cols array|string|\Zend_Db_Expr

The columns to select from this table.

$correlationName string

Correlation name of target table. OPTIONAL

Returns
Type Description
\Zend_Db_Select This Zend_Db_Select object.
methodpublicdistinct( bool $flag = true ) : \Zend_Db_Select

Makes the query SELECT DISTINCT.

Parameters
Name Type Description
$flag bool

Whether or not the SELECT is DISTINCT (default true).

Returns
Type Description
\Zend_Db_Select This Zend_Db_Select object.
methodpublicforUpdate( bool $flag = true ) : \Zend_Db_Select

Makes the query SELECT FOR UPDATE.

Parameters
Name Type Description
$flag bool

Whether or not the SELECT is FOR UPDATE (default true).

Returns
Type Description
\Zend_Db_Select This Zend_Db_Select object.
methodpublicfrom( array|string|\Zend_Db_Expr $name, array|string|\Zend_Db_Expr $cols = '*', string $schema = null ) : \Zend_Db_Select

Adds a FROM table and optional columns to the query.

The first parameter $name can be a simple string, in which case the correlation name is generated automatically. If you want to specify the correlation name, the first parameter must be an associative array in which the key is the correlation name, and the value is the physical table name. For example, array('alias' => 'table'). The correlation name is prepended to all columns fetched for this table.

The second parameter can be a single string or Zend_Db_Expr object, or else an array of strings or Zend_Db_Expr objects.

The first parameter can be null or an empty string, in which case no correlation name is generated or prepended to the columns named in the second parameter.

Parameters
Name Type Description
$name array|string|\Zend_Db_Expr

The table name or an associative array relating correlation name to table name.

$cols array|string|\Zend_Db_Expr

The columns to select from this table.

$schema string

The schema name to specify, if any.

Returns
Type Description
\Zend_Db_Select This Zend_Db_Select object.
methodpublicgetAdapter( ) : \Zend_Db_Adapter_Abstract

Gets the Zend_Db_Adapter_Abstract for this particular Zend_Db_Select object.

Returns
Type Description
\Zend_Db_Adapter_Abstract
methodpublicgetBind( ) : array

Get bind variables

Returns
Type Description
array
methodpublicgetPart( string $part ) : mixed

Get part of the structured information for the currect query.

Parameters
Name Type Description
$part string
Returns
Type Description
mixed
Throws
Exception Description
\Zend_Db_Select_Exception
methodpublicgroup( array|string $spec ) : \Zend_Db_Select

Adds grouping to the query.

Parameters
Name Type Description
$spec array|string

The column(s) to group by.

Returns
Type Description
\Zend_Db_Select This Zend_Db_Select object.
methodpublichaving( string $cond, mixed $value = null, int $type = null ) : \Zend_Db_Select

Adds a HAVING condition to the query by AND.

If a value is passed as the second param, it will be quoted and replaced into the condition wherever a question-mark appears. See {@link where()} for an example

Parameters
Name Type Description
$cond string

The HAVING condition.

$value mixed

OPTIONAL The value to quote into the condition.

$type int

OPTIONAL The type of the given value

Returns
Type Description
\Zend_Db_Select This Zend_Db_Select object.
methodpublicjoin( array|string|\Zend_Db_Expr $name, string $cond, array|string $cols = self::SQL_WILDCARD, string $schema = null ) : \Zend_Db_Select

Adds a JOIN table and columns to the query.

The $name and $cols parameters follow the same logic as described in the from() method.

Parameters
Name Type Description
$name array|string|\Zend_Db_Expr

The table name.

$cond string

Join on this condition.

$cols array|string

The columns to select from the joined table.

$schema string

The database name to specify, if any.

Returns
Type Description
\Zend_Db_Select This Zend_Db_Select object.
methodpublicjoinCross( array|string|\Zend_Db_Expr $name, array|string $cols = self::SQL_WILDCARD, string $schema = null ) : \Zend_Db_Select

Add a CROSS JOIN table and colums to the query.

A cross join is a cartesian product; there is no join condition.

The $name and $cols parameters follow the same logic as described in the from() method.

Parameters
Name Type Description
$name array|string|\Zend_Db_Expr

The table name.

$cols array|string

The columns to select from the joined table.

$schema string

The database name to specify, if any.

Returns
Type Description
\Zend_Db_Select This Zend_Db_Select object.
methodpublicjoinFull( array|string|\Zend_Db_Expr $name, string $cond, array|string $cols = self::SQL_WILDCARD, string $schema = null ) : \Zend_Db_Select

Add a FULL OUTER JOIN table and colums to the query.

A full outer join is like combining a left outer join and a right outer join. All rows from both tables are included, paired with each other on the same row of the result set if they satisfy the join condition, and otherwise paired with NULLs in place of columns from the other table.

The $name and $cols parameters follow the same logic as described in the from() method.

Parameters
Name Type Description
$name array|string|\Zend_Db_Expr

The table name.

$cond string

Join on this condition.

$cols array|string

The columns to select from the joined table.

$schema string

The database name to specify, if any.

Returns
Type Description
\Zend_Db_Select This Zend_Db_Select object.
methodpublicjoinInner( array|string|\Zend_Db_Expr $name, string $cond, array|string $cols = self::SQL_WILDCARD, string $schema = null ) : \Zend_Db_Select

Add an INNER JOIN table and colums to the query Rows in both tables are matched according to the expression in the $cond argument. The result set is comprised of all cases where rows from the left table match rows from the right table.

The $name and $cols parameters follow the same logic as described in the from() method.

Parameters
Name Type Description
$name array|string|\Zend_Db_Expr

The table name.

$cond string

Join on this condition.

$cols array|string

The columns to select from the joined table.

$schema string

The database name to specify, if any.

Returns
Type Description
\Zend_Db_Select This Zend_Db_Select object.
methodpublicjoinLeft( array|string|\Zend_Db_Expr $name, string $cond, array|string $cols = self::SQL_WILDCARD, string $schema = null ) : \Zend_Db_Select

Add a LEFT OUTER JOIN table and colums to the query All rows from the left operand table are included, matching rows from the right operand table included, and the columns from the right operand table are filled with NULLs if no row exists matching the left table.

The $name and $cols parameters follow the same logic as described in the from() method.

Parameters
Name Type Description
$name array|string|\Zend_Db_Expr

The table name.

$cond string

Join on this condition.

$cols array|string

The columns to select from the joined table.

$schema string

The database name to specify, if any.

Returns
Type Description
\Zend_Db_Select This Zend_Db_Select object.
methodpublicjoinNatural( array|string|\Zend_Db_Expr $name, array|string $cols = self::SQL_WILDCARD, string $schema = null ) : \Zend_Db_Select

Add a NATURAL JOIN table and colums to the query.

A natural join assumes an equi-join across any column(s) that appear with the same name in both tables. Only natural inner joins are supported by this API, even though SQL permits natural outer joins as well.

The $name and $cols parameters follow the same logic as described in the from() method.

Parameters
Name Type Description
$name array|string|\Zend_Db_Expr

The table name.

$cols array|string

The columns to select from the joined table.

$schema string

The database name to specify, if any.

Returns
Type Description
\Zend_Db_Select This Zend_Db_Select object.
methodpublicjoinRight( array|string|\Zend_Db_Expr $name, string $cond, array|string $cols = self::SQL_WILDCARD, string $schema = null ) : \Zend_Db_Select

Add a RIGHT OUTER JOIN table and colums to the query.

Right outer join is the complement of left outer join. All rows from the right operand table are included, matching rows from the left operand table included, and the columns from the left operand table are filled with NULLs if no row exists matching the right table.

The $name and $cols parameters follow the same logic as described in the from() method.

Parameters
Name Type Description
$name array|string|\Zend_Db_Expr

The table name.

$cond string

Join on this condition.

$cols array|string

The columns to select from the joined table.

$schema string

The database name to specify, if any.

Returns
Type Description
\Zend_Db_Select This Zend_Db_Select object.
methodpubliclimit( int $count = null, int $offset = null ) : \Zend_Db_Select

Sets a limit count and offset to the query.

Parameters
Name Type Description
$count int

OPTIONAL The number of rows to return.

$offset int

OPTIONAL Start returning after this many rows.

Returns
Type Description
\Zend_Db_Select This Zend_Db_Select object.
methodpubliclimitPage( int $page, int $rowCount ) : \Zend_Db_Select

Sets the limit and count by page number.

Parameters
Name Type Description
$page int

Limit results to this page number.

$rowCount int

Use this many rows per page.

Returns
Type Description
\Zend_Db_Select This Zend_Db_Select object.
methodpublicorHaving( string $cond, mixed $value = null, int $type = null ) : \Zend_Db_Select

Adds a HAVING condition to the query by OR.

Otherwise identical to orHaving().

Parameters
Name Type Description
$cond string

The HAVING condition.

$value mixed

OPTIONAL The value to quote into the condition.

$type int

OPTIONAL The type of the given value

Returns
Type Description
\Zend_Db_Select This Zend_Db_Select object.
Details
See
\having()  
methodpublicorWhere( string $cond, mixed $value = null, int $type = null ) : \Zend_Db_Select

Adds a WHERE condition to the query by OR.

Otherwise identical to where().

Parameters
Name Type Description
$cond string

The WHERE condition.

$value mixed

OPTIONAL The value to quote into the condition.

$type int

OPTIONAL The type of the given value

Returns
Type Description
\Zend_Db_Select This Zend_Db_Select object.
Details
See
\where()  
methodpublicorder( mixed $spec ) : \Zend_Db_Select

Adds a row order to the query.

Parameters
Name Type Description
$spec mixed

The column(s) and direction to order by.

Returns
Type Description
\Zend_Db_Select This Zend_Db_Select object.
methodpublicquery( integer $fetchMode = null, mixed $bind = array() ) : \PDO_Statement|\Zend_Db_Statement

Executes the current select object and returns the result

Parameters
Name Type Description
$fetchMode integer

OPTIONAL

$bind mixed

An array of data to bind to the placeholders.

Returns
Type Description
\PDO_Statement|\Zend_Db_Statement
methodpublicreset( string $part = null ) : \Zend_Db_Select

Clear parts of the Select object, or an individual part.

Parameters
Name Type Description
$part string

OPTIONAL

Returns
Type Description
\Zend_Db_Select
methodpublicunion( array $select = array(),  $type = self::SQL_UNION ) : \Zend_Db_Select

Adds a UNION clause to the query.

The first parameter has to be an array of Zend_Db_Select or sql query strings.

$sql1 = $db->select();
$sql2 = "SELECT ...";
$select = $db->select()
     ->union(array($sql1, $sql2))
     ->order("id");
Parameters
Name Type Description
$select array

Array of select clauses for the union.

$type
Returns
Type Description
\Zend_Db_Select This Zend_Db_Select object.
methodpublicwhere( string $cond, mixed $value = null, int $type = null ) : \Zend_Db_Select

Adds a WHERE condition to the query by AND.

If a value is passed as the second param, it will be quoted and replaced into the condition wherever a question-mark appears. Array values are quoted and comma-separated.

// simplest but non-secure
$select->where("id = $id");

// secure (ID is quoted but matched anyway)
$select->where('id = ?', $id);

// alternatively, with named binding
$select->where('id = :id');

Note that it is more correct to use named bindings in your queries for values other than strings. When you use named bindings, don't forget to pass the values when actually making a query:

$db->fetchAll($select, array('id' => 5));
Parameters
Name Type Description
$cond string

The WHERE condition.

$value mixed

OPTIONAL The value to quote into the condition.

$type int

OPTIONAL The type of the given value

Returns
Type Description
\Zend_Db_Select This Zend_Db_Select object.
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