Getopt is a class to parse options for command-line applications.

Terminology: Argument: an element of the argv array. This may be part of an option, or it may be a non-option command-line argument. Flag: the letter or word set off by a '-' or '--'. Example: in '--output filename', '--output' is the flag. Parameter: the additional argument that is associated with the option. Example: in '--output filename', the 'filename' is the parameter. Option: the combination of a flag and its parameter, if any. Example: in '--output filename', the whole thing is the option.

The following features are supported:

  • Short flags like '-a'. Short flags are preceded by a single dash. Short flags may be clustered e.g. '-abc', which is the same as '-a' '-b' '-c'.
  • Long flags like '--verbose'. Long flags are preceded by a double dash. Long flags may not be clustered.
  • Options may have a parameter, e.g. '--output filename'.
  • Parameters for long flags may also be set off with an equals sign, e.g. '--output=filename'.
  • Parameters for long flags may be checked as string, word, or integer.
  • Automatic generation of a helpful usage message.
  • Signal end of options with '--'; subsequent arguments are treated as non-option arguments, even if they begin with '-'.
  • Raise exception Zend_Console_Getopt_Exception in several cases when invalid flags or parameters are given. Usage message is returned in the exception object.

The format for specifying options uses a PHP associative array. The key is has the format of a list of pipe-separated flag names, followed by an optional '=' to indicate a required parameter or '-' to indicate an optional parameter. Following that, the type of parameter may be specified as 's' for string, 'w' for word, or 'i' for integer.

Examples: - 'user|username|u=s' this means '--user' or '--username' or '-u' are synonyms, and the option requires a string parameter. - 'p=i' this means '-p' requires an integer parameter. No synonyms. - 'verbose|v-i' this means '--verbose' or '-v' are synonyms, and they take an optional integer parameter. - 'help|h' this means '--help' or '-h' are synonyms, and they take no parameter.

The values in the associative array are strings that are used as brief descriptions of the options when printing a usage message.

The simpler format for specifying options used by PHP's getopt() function is also supported. This is similar to GNU getopt and shell getopt format.

Example: 'abc:' means options '-a', '-b', and '-c' are legal, and the latter requires a string parameter.

todo Handle flags that implicitly print usage message, e.g. --help
todo Enable user to specify header and footer content in the help message.
todo Feature request to handle option interdependencies. e.g. if -b is specified, -a must be specified or else the usage is invalid.
todo Feature request to implement callbacks. e.g. if -a is specified, run function 'handleOptionA'().

 Methods

The constructor takes one to three parameters.

__construct(array $rules, array $argv, array $getoptConfig) 

The first parameter is $rules, which may be a string for gnu-style format, or a structured array for Zend-style format.

The second parameter is $argv, and it is optional. If not specified, $argv is inferred from the global argv.

The third parameter is an array of configuration parameters to control the behavior of this instance of Getopt; it is optional.

Parameters

$rules

array

$argv

array

$getoptConfig

array

Exceptions

\Zend\Console\Exception\InvalidArgumentException

Return the state of the option seen on the command line of the current application invocation.

__get(string $key) : string

This function returns true, or the parameter to the option, if any. If the option was not given, this function returns null.

The magic __get method works in the context of naming the option as a virtual member of this class.

Parameters

$key

string

Returns

string

Test whether a given option has been seen.

__isset(string $key) : bool

Parameters

$key

string

Returns

bool

Set the value for a given option.

__set(string $key, string $value) : void

Parameters

$key

string

$value

string

Return the current set of options and parameters seen as a string.

__toString() : string

Returns

string

Unset an option.

__unset(string $key) : void

Parameters

$key

string

Define additional command-line arguments.

addArguments(array $argv) : \Zend\Console\Getopt

These are appended to those defined when the constructor was called.

Parameters

$argv

array

Exceptions

\Zend\Console\Exception\InvalidArgumentException When not given an array as parameter

Returns

\Zend\Console\GetoptProvides a fluent interface

Define additional option rules.

addRules(array $rules) : \Zend\Console\Getopt

These are appended to the rules defined when the constructor was called.

Parameters

$rules

array

Returns

\Zend\Console\GetoptProvides a fluent interface

getArguments()

getArguments() 

Return the state of the option seen on the command line of the current application invocation.

getOption(string $flag) : mixed

This function returns true, or the parameter value to the option, if any. If the option was not given, this function returns false.

Parameters

$flag

string

Returns

mixed

Return a list of options that have been seen in the current argv.

getOptions() : array

Returns

array

Return the arguments from the command-line following all options found.

getRemainingArgs() : array

Returns

array

Return a useful option reference, formatted for display in an error message.

getUsageMessage() : string

Note that this usage information is provided in most Exceptions generated by this class.

Returns

string

Parse command-line arguments and find both long and short options.

parse() : \Zend\Console\Getopt | null

Also find option parameters, and remaining arguments after all options have been parsed.

Returns

\Zend\Console\GetoptnullProvides a fluent interface

Define aliases for options.

setAliases(array $aliasMap) : \Zend\Console\Getopt

The parameter $aliasMap is an associative array mapping option name (short or long) to an alias.

Parameters

$aliasMap

array

Exceptions

\Zend\Console\Exception\ExceptionInterface

Returns

\Zend\Console\GetoptProvides a fluent interface

Define full set of command-line arguments.

setArguments(array $argv) : \Zend\Console\Getopt

These replace any currently defined.

Parameters

$argv

array

Exceptions

\Zend\Console\Exception\InvalidArgumentException When not given an array as parameter

Returns

\Zend\Console\GetoptProvides a fluent interface

Define help messages for options.

setHelp(array $helpMap) : \Zend\Console\Getopt

The parameter $helpMap is an associative array mapping option name (short or long) to the help string.

Parameters

$helpMap

array

Returns

\Zend\Console\GetoptProvides a fluent interface

Define one configuration option as a key/value pair.

setOption(string $configKey, string $configValue) : \Zend\Console\Getopt

These are not program options, but properties to configure the behavior of Zend_Console_Getopt.

Parameters

$configKey

string

$configValue

string

Returns

\Zend\Console\GetoptProvides a fluent interface

Define multiple configuration options from an associative array.

setOptions(array $getoptConfig) : \Zend\Console\Getopt

These are not program options, but properties to configure the behavior of Zend_Console_Getopt.

Parameters

$getoptConfig

array

Returns

\Zend\Console\GetoptProvides a fluent interface

Return the current set of options and parameters seen as an array of canonical options and parameters.

toArray() : array

Clusters have been expanded, and option aliases have been mapped to their primary option names.

Returns

array

Return the current set of options and parameters seen in Json format.

toJson() : string

Returns

string

Return the current set of options and parameters seen as a string.

toString() : string

Returns

string

Return the current set of options and parameters seen in XML format.

toXml() : string

Returns

string

Define legal options using the gnu-style format.

_addRulesModeGnu(string $rules) : void

Parameters

$rules

string

Define legal options using the Zend-style format.

_addRulesModeZend(array $rules) : void

Parameters

$rules

array

Exceptions

\Zend\Console\Exception\ExceptionInterface

Return true if the parameter is in a valid format for the option $flag.

_checkParameterType(string $flag, string $param) : bool

Throw an exception in most other cases.

Parameters

$flag

string

$param

string

Exceptions

\Zend\Console\Exception\ExceptionInterface

Returns

bool

Parse command-line arguments for a single long option.

_parseLongOption(mixed $argv) : void

A long option is preceded by a double '--' character. Long options may not be clustered.

Parameters

$argv

mixed

&$argv

Parse command-line arguments for short options.

_parseShortOptionCluster(mixed $argv) : void

Short options are those preceded by a single '-' character. Short options may be clustered.

Parameters

$argv

mixed

&$argv

Parse command-line arguments for a single option.

_parseSingleOption(string $flag, mixed $argv) : void

Parameters

$flag

string

$argv

mixed

Exceptions

\Zend\Console\Exception\ExceptionInterface

Set TRUE value to given flag, if this option does not exist yet In other case increase value to show count of flags' usage

_setBooleanFlagValue(string $flag) : null

Parameters

$flag

string

Returns

null

Set given value as value of numeric option

_setNumericOptionValue(int $value) : void

Throw runtime exception if this action is deny by configuration or no one numeric option handlers is defined

Parameters

$value

int

Exceptions

\Zend\Console\Exception\RuntimeException

Add relative to options' flag value

_setSingleOptionValue(string $flag, string $value) : null

If options list already has current flag as key and parser should follow cumulative params by configuration, we should to add new param to array, not to overwrite

Parameters

$flag

string

$value

string

Returns

null

 Properties

 

Stores the command-line arguments for the calling application.

$argv : array

 

Defaults for getopt configuration are: ruleMode is 'zend' format, dashDash (--) token is enabled, ignoreCase is not enabled, parseAll is enabled, cumulative parameters are disabled, this means that subsequent options overwrite the parameter value, cumulative flags are disable, freeform flags are disable.

$getoptConfig 

 

Stores options given by the user in the current invocation of the application, as well as parameters given in options.

$options : array

 

State of the options: parsed or not yet parsed?

$parsed : bool

 

Stores the name of the calling application.

$progname : string

 

Stores the command-line arguments other than options.

$remainingArgs : array

 

Stores alternate spellings of legal options.

$ruleMap : array

 

Stores the list of legal options for this application.

$rules : array

 Constants

 

CONFIG_CUMULATIVE_FLAGS

CONFIG_CUMULATIVE_FLAGS 

 

CONFIG_CUMULATIVE_PARAMETERS

CONFIG_CUMULATIVE_PARAMETERS 

 

CONFIG_DASHDASH

CONFIG_DASHDASH 

 

CONFIG_FREEFORM_FLAGS

CONFIG_FREEFORM_FLAGS 

 

CONFIG_IGNORECASE

CONFIG_IGNORECASE 

 

CONFIG_NUMERIC_FLAGS

CONFIG_NUMERIC_FLAGS 

 

CONFIG_PARAMETER_SEPARATOR

CONFIG_PARAMETER_SEPARATOR 

 

CONFIG_PARSEALL

CONFIG_PARSEALL 

 

These are constants for optional behavior of this class.

CONFIG_RULEMODE 

ruleMode is either 'zend' or 'gnu' or a user-defined mode. dashDash is true if '--' signifies the end of command-line options. ignoreCase is true if '--opt' and '--OPT' are implicitly synonyms. parseAll is true if all options on the command line should be parsed, regardless of whether an argument appears before them.

 

MODE_GNU

MODE_GNU 

 

The options for a given application can be in multiple formats.

MODE_ZEND 

modeGnu is for traditional 'ab:c:' style getopt format. modeZend is for a more structured format.

 

PARAM_OPTIONAL

PARAM_OPTIONAL 

 

Constant tokens for various symbols used in the mode_zend rule format.

PARAM_REQUIRED 

 

TYPE_INTEGER

TYPE_INTEGER 

 

TYPE_NUMERIC_FLAG

TYPE_NUMERIC_FLAG 

 

TYPE_STRING

TYPE_STRING 

 

TYPE_WORD

TYPE_WORD