Caching middleware with Expressive

Performance is one of the key feature for web application. Using a middleware architecture makes it very simple to implement a caching system in PHP.

The general idea is to store the response output of a URL in a file (or in memory, using memcached) and use it for subsequent requests. In this way we can bypass the execution of the previous middlewares starting from the second request.

Of course, this technique can only be applied for static contents, that does not require update for each HTTP request.

Implement a caching middleware

Imagine we want to create a simple cache system with Expressive. We can use an implementation like that:

namespace App\Action;

use Interop\Http\ServerMiddleware\DelegateInterface;
use Interop\Http\ServerMiddleware\MiddlewareInterface as ServerMiddlewareInterface;
use Psr\Http\Message\ServerRequestInterface;
use Zend\Diactoros\Response\HtmlResponse;

class CacheMiddleware implements ServerMiddlewareInterface
    protected $config;

    public function __construct(array $config)
        $this->config = $config;

    public function process(ServerRequestInterface $request, DelegateInterface $delegate)
        $url  = str_replace('/', '_', $request->getUri()->getPath());
        $file = $this->config['path'] . $url . '.html';
        if ($this->config['enabled'] && file_exists($file) &&
            (time() - filemtime($file)) < $this->config['lifetime']) {
            return new HtmlResponse(file_get_contents($file));

        $response = $delegate->process($request);
        if ($response instanceof HtmlResponse && $this->config['enabled']) {
            file_put_contents($file, $response->getBody());
        return $response;

In this example, we used the PSR-15 proposal to implement the Middleware interface using the process() function. This is the suggested way to implement middleware in Expressive 2.0.

The idea of this middleware is quite simple. If the caching system is enabled and if the requested URL matches an existing cache file, we return the cache content as HtmlResponse, ending the execution flow.

If the requested URL path does not exist in cache, we process the delegate middleware (basically we continue with the normal workflow) and we store the response in the cache, if enabled.

Configure the cache system

To manage the cache, we used a configuration key cache to specify the path of the cache files, the lifetime in seconds and the enabled value to turn on and off the caching system.

Since we used a file to store the cache content, we can use the file modification time to manage the lifetime of the cache. We used the filemtime function of PHP to retrieve the modification file time.

Note: if you want to use memcached instead of file you need to replace the file_get_contents and file_put_contents functions with Memcached::get and Memcached::set. Moreover, you do not need to check for lifetime because when you set a content in memcached you can specify the expiration directly.

In order to pass the $config dependency, we can use a simple factory class. This is an example:

namespace App\Action;

use Interop\Container\ContainerInterface;
use Exception;

class CacheFactory
    public function __invoke(ContainerInterface $container)
        $config = $container->get('config');
        if (isset($config['cache']) && isset($config['cache']['enabled'])) {
            if ($config['cache']['enabled']) {
                if (!isset($config['cache']['path'])) {
                    throw new Exception('The cache path is not configured');
                if (!isset($config['cache']['lifetime'])) {
                    throw new Exception('The cache lifetime is not configured');
        return new CacheMiddleware($config['cache']);

Following the folder structure of Expressive, we can store this configuration in a simple PHP file in the config/autoload directory. For instance, we can store it in config/autoload/cache.local.php file, as follows:

return [
    'cache' => [
      'enabled'  => true,
      'path'     => __DIR__ . '/../../data/cache/',
      'lifetime' => 3600 // in seconds

We used the folder /data/cache for storing the caching file. The content of this folder should be omitted in the version control. For instance, using git you can omit the content putting a .gitignore file inside the cache folder with the following content:


Finally, in order to activate the caching system we need to add the CacheMiddleware class as service. In our example, we used zend-servicemanager as service container. To add the cache system we can use a configuration file (e.g. /config/autoload/ with the following content:

return [
    'dependencies' => [
        'factories' => [
            App\Action\CacheMiddleware::class => App\Action\CacheFactory::class

How enable the cache for specific routes

We mentioned early that this caching mechanism works fine for static content. That means we need a way to enable the cache only for specific routes.

We can simply add the CacheMiddleware class as first middleware to be executed for all the routes representing static contents.

For instance, imagine to have a /about route that show an about page of your web site. We can add the CacheMiddleware as follow:

use App\Action;

$app->get('/about', [
], 'about');

The middleware actions to be excuted for the /about URL are CacheMiddleware and AboutAction in this order. The $app object is the instance of Zend\Expressive\Application, the main class that manages the execution of an Expressive application.


In this brief article we showed how to build a caching system for a PHP application based on PSR-7 and PSR-15. A middleware architecture facilitates the design of a cache layer because it uses the same workflow, an HTTP request as input and an HTTP response as output. In this way, we can manage the HTTP request, get the HTTP response for any middlewares and store the result for caching, all in one place.

In this article we used the zendframework/zend-expressive-skeleton application as example. For more information about Expressive, visit the documentation.

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