Manage permissions with zend-permissions-acl

The last couple posts have been around authorization, the act of determining if a given identity has access to a resource. We covered usage of role based access controls, as well as middleware that uses an RBAC.

In this post, we'll explore another option provided by Zend Framework, zend-permissions-acl, which implements Access Control Lists (ACL).

This post will follow the same basic format as the one covering zend-permissions-rbac, using the same basic examples.

Installing zend-permissions-acl

Just as you would any of our components, install zend-permissions-acl via Composer:

$ composer require zendframework/zend-permissions-acl

The component has no requirements at this time other than a PHP version of at least 5.5.


In ACL systems, we have three concepts:

  • a resource is something to which we control access.
  • a role is something that will request access to a resource.
  • Each resource has privileges for which access will be requested to specific roles.

As an example, an author might request to create (privilege) a blog post (resource); later, an editor (role) might request to edit (privilege) a blog post (resource).

The chief difference to RBAC is that RBAC essentially combines the resource and privilege into a single item. By separating them, you can create a set of discrete permissions for your entire application, and then create roles with multiple-inheritance in order to implement fine-grained permissions.


An ACL is created by instantiating the Acl class:

use Zend\Permissions\Acl\Acl;

$acl = new Acl();

Once that instance is available, we can start adding roles, resources, and privileges.

For this blog post, our ACL will be used for a content-based website.


Roles are added via the $acl->addRole() method. This method takes either a string role name, or a Zend\Permissions\Acl\Role\RoleInterface instance.

Let's start with a "guest" role, that only allows "read" permissions.

use Zend\Permissions\Acl\Role\GenericRole as Role;

// Create some roles
$guest = new Role('guest');

// OR

Referencing roles and resources

Roles are simply strings. We model them as objects in zend-permissions-acl in order to provide strong typing, but the only requirement is that they return a string role name. As such, when creating permissions, you can use either a role instance, or the equivalent name.

The same is true for resources, which we cover in a later section.

By default, zend-permissions-acl implements a whitelist approach. A whitelist denies access to everything unless it is explicitly whitelisted. (This is as opposed to a blacklist, where access is allowed to everything unless it is in the blacklist.) Unless you really know what you're doing we do not suggest toggling this; whitelists are widely regarded as a best practice for security.

What that means is that, out of the gate, while we can do some privilege assertions:

$acl->isAllowed('guest', 'blog', 'read');
$acl->isAllowed('guest', 'blog', 'write');

these will always return false, denying access. So, we need to start adding privileges.


Privileges are assigned using $acl->allow().

For the guest role, we'll allow the read privilege on any resource:

$acl->allow('guest', null, 'read');

The second argument to allow() is the resource (or resources); specifying null indicates the privilege applies to all resources. If we re-run the above assertions, we get the following:

$acl->isAllowed('guest', 'blog', 'read');  // true
$acl->isAllowed('guest', 'blog', 'write'); // false

Unknown roles or resources

One thing to note: if either the role or resource used with isAllowed() does not exist, this method raises an exception, specifically a Zend\Permissions\Acl\Exception\InvalidArgumentException, indicating the role or resource could not be found.

In many situations, this may not be what you want; you may want to handle non-existent roles and/or resources gracefully. You could do this in a couple ways. First, you can test to see if the role or resource exists before you check the permissions, using hasRole() and/or hasResource():

if (! $acl->hasRole($foo)) {
    // failed, due to missing role
if (! $acl->hasResource($bar)) {
    // failed, due to missing resource
if (! $acl->isAllowed($foo, $bar, $privilege)) {
    // failed, due to invalid privilege

Alternately, wrap the isAllowed() call in a try/catch block:

try {
    if (! $acl->isAllowed($foo, $bar, $privilege)) {
        // failed, due to missing privileges
} catch (AclInvalidArgumentException $e) {
      // failed, due to missing role or resource

Personally, I don't like to use exceptions for application flow, so I recommend the first solution. That said, in most cases, you will be working with a role instance that you've just added to the ACL, and should only perform assertions against known resources.


Now let's add some actual resources. These are almost exactly like roles in terms of usage: you create a ResourceInterface instance to pass to the ACL, or, more simply, a string; resources are added via the $acl->addResource() method.

use Zend\Permissions\Acl\Resource\GenericResource as Resource;

$resource = new Resource('blog');

// OR:

A resource is anything to which you want to apply permissions. In the remaining examples of this post, we'll use a "blog" as the resource, and provide a variety of permissions related to it.


Let's say we want to build on our previous examples, and create an "editor" role that also incorporates the permissions of the "guest" role, and adds a "write" permission to the "blog" resource.

Unlike RBAC, roles themselves contain no information about inheritance; instead, the ACL takes care of that when you add the role to the ACL:

$editor = new Role('editor');
$acl->addRole($editor, $guest); // OR:
$acl->addRole($editor, 'guest');

The above creates a new role, editor, which inherits the permissions of our guest role. Now, let's add a privilege allowing editors to write to our blog:

$acl->allow('editor', 'blog', 'write');

With this in place, let's do some assertions:

$acl->isAllowed('editor', 'blog', 'write'); // true
$acl->isAllowed('editor', 'blog', 'read');  // true
$acl->isAllowed('guest',  'blog', 'write'); // false

Another role might be a "reviewer" who can "moderate" content:

$acl->addRole('reviewer', 'guest');
$acl->allow('reviewer', 'blog', 'moderate');

$acl->isAllowed('reviewer', 'blog', 'moderate'); // true
$acl->isAllowed('reviewer', 'blog', 'write');    // false; editor only!
$acl->isAllowed('reviewer', 'blog', 'read');     // true
$acl->isAllowed('guest',    'blog', 'moderate'); // false

Let's create another, an "admin" who can do all of the above, but also has permissions for "settings":

$acl->addRole('admin', ['guest', 'editor', 'reviewer']);
$acl->allow('admin', 'blog', 'settings');

$acl->isAllowed('admin',    'blog', 'settings'); // true
$acl->isAllowed('admin',    'blog', 'write');    // true
$acl->isAllowed('admin',    'blog', 'moderate'); // true
$acl->isAllowed('admin',    'blog', 'read');     // true
$acl->isAllowed('editor',   'blog', 'settings'); // false
$acl->isAllowed('reviewer', 'blog', 'settings'); // false
$acl->isAllowed('guest',    'blog', 'write');    // false

Note that the addRole() call here provides an array of roles as the second value this time; when called this way, the new role will inherit the privileges of every role listed; this allows for multiple-inheritance at the role level.

Resource inheritance

Resource inheritance works exactly the same as Role inheritance! Add one or more parent resources when calling addResource() on the ACL, and any privileges assigned to that parent resource will also apply to the new resource.

As an example, I could have a "news" section in my website that has the same privilege and role schema as my blog:

$acl->addResource('news', 'blog');

Fun with privileges!

Privileges are assigned using allow(). Interestingly, like addRole() and addResource(), the role and resource arguments presented may be arrays of each; in fact, so can the privileges themselves!

As an example, we could do the following:

    ['reviewer', 'editor'],
    ['blog', 'homepage'],
    ['write', 'maintenance']

This would assign the "write" and "maintenance" privileges on each of the "blog" and "homepage" resources to the "reviewer" and "editor" roles! Due to inheritance, the "admin" role would also gain these privileges.

Creating your ACL

When should you create your ACL, exactly? And should it contain all roles and permissions?

Typically, you will create a finite number of application or domain permissions. In our above examples, we could omit the blog resource and apply the ACL only within the blog domain (for example, only within a module of a zend-mvc or Expressive application); alternately, it could be an application-wide ACL, with resources segregated by specific domain within the application.

In either case, you will generally:

  • Create a finite set of well-known roles, resources, and privileges as a global or per-domain ACL.
  • Create a custom role for the current user, typically inheriting from the set of well-known roles.
  • Validate the current user against the ACL.

Unlike RBAC, you typically will not add custom permissions for a user. The reason for this is due to the complexity of storing the combination of roles, resources, and privileges in a database. Storing roles is trivial:

user_id fullname roles
mario Mario editor,reviewer

You could then create the role by splitting the roles field and assigning each as parents:

$acl->addRole($user->getId(), explode(',', $user->getRoles());

However, for fine-grained permissions, you would essentially need an additional lookup table mapping the user to a resource and list of privileges:

user_id resource privileges
mario blog update,delete
mario news update

While it can be done, it's resource and code intensive.

Putting it all together, let's say the user "mario" has logged in, with the role "editor"; further, let's assume that the identity instance for our user implements RoleInterface. If our ACL is already populated per the above examples, I might do the following:

$acl->addRole($mario, $mario->getRoles());

$acl->isAllowed($mario, 'blog', 'settings'); // false; admin only!
$acl->isAllowed($mario, 'blog', 'write');    // true; all editors
$acl->isAllowed($mario, 'blog', 'read');     // true; all guests

Now, let's say we've gone to the work of creating the join table necessary for storing user ACL information; we might have something like the following to further populate the ACL:

foreach ($mario->getPrivileges() as $resource => $privileges) {
    $acl->allow($mario, $resource, explode(',', $privileges));

We could then do the following assertions:

$acl->isAllowed($mario,   'blog', 'update'); // true
$acl->isAllowed('editor', 'blog', 'update'); // false; mario only!
$acl->isAllowed($mario,   'blog', 'delete'); // true
$acl->isAllowed('editor', 'blog', 'delete'); // false; mario only!

Custom assertions

Fine-grained as the privilege system can be, sometimes it's not enough.

As an example, we may want to implement a rule that the creator of a content item in our website always has rights to edit the item. How would we implement that with the above system?

zend-permissions-acl allows you to do so via dynamic assertions. Such assertions are classes that implement Zend\Permissions\Acl\Assertion\AssertionInterface, which defines a single method:

namespace Zend\Permissions\Assertion;

use Zend\Permissions\Acl\Acl;
use Zend\Permissions\Acl\Resource\ResourceInterface;
use Zend\Permissions\Acl\Role\RoleInterface;

interface AssertionInterface
     * @return bool
    public function assert(
        Acl $acl,
        RoleInterface $role = null,
        ResourceInterface $resource = null,
        $privilege = null

For the sake of this example, let's assume:

  • We cast our identity to a RoleInterface instance after retrieval.
  • The content item is represented as an object.
  • The object has a method getCreatorUsername() that will return the same username as we might have in our custom identity from the previous example.
  • If the username is the same as the custom identity, allow any privileges.

Because we have PHP 7 at our disposal, we'll create the assertion as an anonymous class:

use Zend\Permissions\Acl\Acl;
use Zend\Permissions\Acl\Assertion\AssertionInterface;
use Zend\Permissions\Acl\Resource\ResourceInterface;
use Zend\Permissions\Acl\Role\RoleInterface;

$assertion = new class ($identity, $content) implements AssertionInterface {
    private $content;
    private $identity;

    public function __construct(RoleInterface $identity, $content)
        $this->identity = $identity;
        $this->content = $content;

     * @return bool
    public function assert(
        Acl $acl,
        RoleInterface $role = null,
        ResourceInterface $resource = null,
        $privilege = null
    ) {
        if (null === $role || $role->getRoleId() !== $this->identity->getRoleId()) {
            return false;

        if (null === $resource || 'blog' !== $resource->getResourceId()) {
            return false;

        return $this->identity->getRoleId() === $this->content->getCreatorUsername();

// Attach the assertion to all roles on the blog resource;
// custom assertions are provided as a fourth argument to allow().
$acl->allow(null, 'blog', null, $assertion);

$acl->isAllowed('mario', 'blog', 'edit'); // returns true if $mario created $content

The above creates a new assertion that will trigger for the "blog" resource when a privilege we do not already know about is queried. In that particular case, if the creator of our content is the same as the current user, it will return true, allowing access!

By creating such assertions in-place with data retrieved at runtime, you can achieve an incredible amount of flexibility for your ACLs.

Wrapping up

zend-permissions-acl provides a huge amount of power, and the ability to provide both role and resource inheritance can vastly simplify setup of complex ACLs. Additionally, the privilege system provides much-needed granularity.

If you wanted to use ACLs in middleware, the usage is quite similar to zend-permissions-rbac: inject your ACL instance in your middleware, retrieve your user identity (and thus role) from the request, and perform queries against the ACL using the current middleware or route as a resource, and either the HTTP method or the domain action you will perform as the privilege.

The main difficulty with zend-permissions-acl is that there is no 1:1 relationship between a role and a privilege, which makes storing ACL information in a database more complex. If you find yourself struggling with that fact, you may want to use RBAC instead.

Hopefully these last few posts provide you with the information you need to start adding authentication and authorization to any PHP application you're writing!

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