Emitting Responses with Diactoros

When writing middleware-based applications, at some point you will need to emit your response.

PSR-7 defines the various interfaces related to HTTP messages, but does not define how they will be used. Diactoros defines several utility classes for these purposes, including a ServerRequestFactory for generating a ServerRequest instance from the PHP SAPI in use, and a set of emitters, for emitting responses back to the client. In this post, we'll detail the purpose of emitters, the emitters shipped with Diactoros, and some strategies for emitting content to your users.

What is an emitter?

In vanilla PHP applications, you might call one or more of the following functions in order to provide a response to your client:

  • http_response_code() for emitting the HTTP response code to use; this must be called before any output is emitted.
  • header() for emitting response headers. Like http_response_code(), this must be called before any output is emitted. It may be called multiple times, in order to set multiple headers.
  • echo(), printf(), var_dump(), and var_export() will each emit output to the current output buffer, or, if none is present, directly to the client.

One aspect PSR-7 aims to resolve is the ability to generate a response piece-meal, including adding content and headers in whatever order your application requires. To accomplish this, it provides a ResponseInterface with which your application interacts, and which aggregates the response status code, its headers, and all content.

Once you have a complete response, however, you need to emit it.

Diactoros provides emitters to solve this problem. Emitters all implement Zend\Diactoros\Response\EmitterInterface:

namespace Zend\Diactoros\Response;

use Psr\Http\Message\ResponseInterface;

interface EmitterInterface
     * Emit a response.
     * Emits a response, including status line, headers, and the message body,
     * according to the environment.
     * Implementations of this method may be written in such a way as to have
     * side effects, such as usage of header() or pushing output to the
     * output buffer.
     * Implementations MAY raise exceptions if they are unable to emit the
     * response; e.g., if headers have already been sent.
     * @param ResponseInterface $response
    public function emit(ResponseInterface $response);

Diactoros provides two emitter implementations, both geared towards standard PHP SAPI implementations:

  • Zend\Diactoros\Emitter\SapiEmitter
  • Zend\Diactoros\Emitter\SapiStreamEmitter

Internally, they operate very similarly: they emit the response status code, all headers, and the response body content. Prior to doing so, however, they check for the following conditions:

  • Headers have not yet been sent.
  • If any output buffers exist, no content is present.

If either of these conditions is not true, the emitters raise an exception. This is done to ensure that consistent content can be emitted; mixing PSR-7 and global output leads to unexpected and inconsistent results. If you are using middleware, use things like the error log, loggers, etc. if you want to debug, instead of mixing strategies.

Emitting files

As noted above, one of the two emitters is the SapiStreamEmitter. The normal SapiEmitter emits the response body at once via a single echo statement. This works for most general markup and JSON payloads, but when returning files (for example, when providing file downloads via your application), this strategy can quickly exhaust the amount of memory PHP is allowed to consume.

The SapiStreamEmitter is designed to answer the problem of file downloads. It emits a chunk at a time (8192 bytes by default). While this can mean a bit more performance overhead when emitting a large file, as you'll have more method calls, it also leads to reduced memory overhead, as less content is in memory at any given time.

The SapiStreamEmitter has another important feature, however: it allows sending content ranges.

Clients can opt-in to receiving small chunks of a file at a time. While this means more network calls, it can also help prevent corruption of large files by allowing the client to re-try failed requests in order to stitch together the full file. Doing so also allows providing progress status, or even buffering streaming content.

When requesting content ranges, the client will pass a Range header:

Range: bytes=1024-2047

It is up to the server then to detect such a header and return the requested range. Servers indicate that they are doing so by responding with a Content-Range header with the range of bytes being returned and the total number of bytes possible; the response body then only contains those bytes.

Content-Range: bytes=1024-2047/11576

As an example, middleware that allows returning a content range might look like the following:

function (ServerRequestInterface $request, DelegateInterface $delegate) : ResponseInterface
    $stream = new Stream('path/to/download/file', 'r');
    $response = new Response($stream);

    $range = $request->getHeaderLine('range');
    if (empty($range)) {
        return $response;

    $size  = $body->getSize();
    $range = str_replace('=', ' ', $range);
    $range .= '/' . $size;

    return $response->withHeader('Content-Range', $range);

You'll likely want to validate that the range is within the size of the file, too!

The above code emits a Content-Range response header if a Range header is in the request. However, how do we ensure only that range of bytes is emitted?

By using the SapiStreamEmitter! This emitter will detect the Content-Range header and use it to read and emit only the bytes specified by that header; no extra work is necessary!

Mixing and matching emitters

The SapiEmitter is perfect for content generated within your application — HTML, JSON, XML, etc. — as such content is usually of reasonable length, and will not exceed normal memory and resource limits.

The SapiStreamEmitter is ideal for returning file downloads, but can lead to performance overhead when emitting standard application content.

How can you mix and match the two?

Expressive answers this question by providing Zend\Expressive\Emitter\EmitterStack. The class acts as a stack (last in, first out), executing each emitter composed until one indicates it has handled the response.

This class capitalizes on the fact that the return value of EmitterInterface is undefined. Emitters that return a boolean false indicate they were unable to handle the response, allowing the EmitterStack to move to the next emitter in the stack. The first emitter to return a non-false value halts execution.

Both the emitters defined in zend-diactoros return null by default. So, if we want to create a stack that first tries SapiStreamEmitter, and then defaults to SapiEmitter, we could do the following:

use Psr\Http\Message\ResponseInterface;
use Zend\Diactoros\Response\EmitterInterface;
use Zend\Diactoros\Response\SapiEmitter;
use Zend\Diactoros\Response\SapiStreamEmitter;
use Zend\Expressive\Emitter\EmitterStack;

$emitterStack = new EmitterStack();
$emitterStack->push(new SapiEmitter());
$emitterStack->push(new class implements EmitterInterface {
    public function emit(ResponseInterface $response)
        $contentSize = $response->getBody()->getSize();

        if ('' === $response->getHeaderLine('content-range')
            && $contentSize < 8192
        ) {
            return false;

        $emitter = new SapiStreamEmitter();
        return $emitter->emit($response);

The above will execute our anonymous class as the first emitter. If the response has a Content-Range header, or if the size of the content is greater than 8k, it will use the SapiStreamEmitter; otherwise, it returns false, allowing the next emitter in the stack, SapiEmitter, to execute. Since that emitter always returns null, it acts as a default emitter implementation.

In Expressive, if you were to wrap the above in a factory that returns the $emitterStack, and assign that factory to the Zend\Diactoros\Emitter\EmitterInterface service, then the above stack will be used by Zend\Expressive\Application for the purpose of emitting the application response!


Emitters provide you the ability to return the response you have aggregated in your application to the client. They are intended to have side-effects: sending the response code, response headers, and body content. Different emitters can use different strategies when emitting responses, from simply echoing content, to iterating through chunks of content (as the SapiStreamEmitter does). Using Expressive's EmitterStack can provide you with a way to select different emitters for specific response criteria.

For more information:



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